MB/GPW Tools and Spare Parts Kit Items

The MB/GPW Spare Parts Kit, Tools Kit,
Standard Issue Equipment & Accessories,
Special Issue Equipment & Accessories Page

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Spare Parts Kit
Item Nomenclature Fed #   /   MFG. # Willys # Ford # Storage Location
Bag, Spare Parts 8-B-11 A-7686 GPW-17008 Glove Box *1
Belt, Fan 33-B-76   /  Gates 79T A-1495/A-9490 GPW-8620 Bag, Spare Parts
Caps, Tire Valve, boxed, (5x #GPW-1720) 8-C-650 A-7681 GPW-18322 Bag, Spare Parts
Cores, Tire Valve, boxed, (5x  #B-1725) 8-C-6750 A-7682 GPW-18320 Bag, Spare Parts
Lamp, Incandescent, 6-8v, 3cp 17-L-5215   /  Mazda 63 A-8385 B-13166 Bag, Spare Parts
Lamp-Unit, BO Stop, 6-8v, 3cp 8-L-421  A-1078 GP-13485A Bag, Spare Parts
Lamp-Unit, BO Tail, 6-8v, 3cp 8-L-415 A-1075 GP-13491A Bag, Spare Parts
Lamp-Unit, Service Tail & Stop,  6-8v, 3-21cp 8-L-419 A-1074 GP-13494A Bag, Spare Parts
Pins, Cotter, (Kit) 42-P-5347 A-7683 GPW-18318 Bag, Spare Parts
Plug, Spark 17-P-5365 / Champion-J9  Autolite-AN7  AC-44 Firestone-17-P-5365 
A-538 GPW-12405 Bag, Spare Parts
Tape, Friction (Roll) 17-T-805 A-7684 GPW-17058 Bag, Spare Parts
Wire, Iron, 1/4 lb. Spool  22-W-650 A-7685 GPW-17060 Bag, Spare Parts
*Bag, Key (with two H-700 keys) GPW-17082 Glove Box *2
*Cap, Drain, Sump, Gas Tank Well A-3055 GPW-1111322 Glove Box *3
*Plug, Drain, Floor, Body A-5120 358019-S  1/4" plug Glove Box *2
*1 ~ Right Rear Tool Box on Slatgrill MB models.
*2 ~ Not a spare part, but stored with spare parts when not in use.
*3 ~ Not a spare part, but stored with spare parts when not in use. Normally front cap was installed on sump, while the rear cap was stored in glove box. The rear cap was installed on sump only when fording water.

Bag, Spare Parts - A small bag sewn from light OD green cotton cloth. Closed at the top by a drawstring. Stored in glove box on most jeeps or in rear tool storage box on the early slatgrill MB's without a glove compartment..
Belt, Fan - A coiled Fan Belt found marked in 3 versions.

  1. Federal Ordnance Stock #,
  2. Willys were marked in orange rubber ink "WILLYS A-9490 B.F. GOODRICH"
  3. Ford's were marked in raised lettering "FORD GPW-8620"
Cap, Tire Valve - Extra Tire Valve Stem Cores & Caps were included.
Core, Tire Valve - Extra Tire Valve Stem Cores & Caps were included.
Lamp, Incandescent - Small 6v bulb that fits both the Dash (Instrument) Lamps and the Blackout Marker Lights.
Lamp-Unit, BO Stop ~ Lamp-Unit, BO Tail ~ Lamp-Unit, Service Tail and Stop - B/O taillight assemblies consisting of metal housing, bulb, and lens in one unit.
Pin, Cotter - a small cardboard box of many various size cotter pins was included. Found marked in 3 versions.
  1. in cardboard box marked with "Federal Ordnance Stock #42-P-5347  US ARMY"
  2. Willys have been found in a small metal canister with lid
  3. Ford's were in cardboard box marked with "FORD GPW-18318"
Plug, Spark - Spark Plug with Gasket. Also found in several brand versions.
Tape, Friction - A roll of black friction tape (early form of electrical tape) that is  4 1/4" in diameter x 3/4" wide.
Wire, Iron, ¼ lb. Spool - a coil of easily bent iron bailing wire described as "iron, annealed wire, 22ga. x 1/4 lb. spool coil".
*Bag, Key (H-700 key) - a small cotton bag was included with shipped jeeps. The bag was stored in the Glove Compartment. The bag contained two H-700 keys which were used on the following;
  1. Tool Box Locks (2)
  2. Spare Tire Lock
  3. Ignition Switches (early Keyed type)
  4. Glove Box Lock (early Keyed type)
  5. Black Out Light Switch on MBT Trailer (shown in manuals using base of key, not key shaft). 1/4ton Bantam and Willys trailers (MBT / T-3) used the same black out lights as jeeps did, however, switching between normal and blackout lights on the jeep pulling the trailer did not affect the status of the lights that were running on the trailer.  The trailer had its own light switch mounted to the front passenger side box frame. Here is a photo showing the small WWII MBT Jeep Trailer B/O Light Switch mounted in the front of the lower passenger side. There was a small disc (door) that swiveled out of the way to reveal a small set screw that can be turned using the butt end of the Jeep H-700 Key to switch between running lights and B/O lites.
*Cap, Drain, Sump, Gas Tank Well - Although not a spare part, it was intended to be stored with the items in the Spare Parts Kit on the jeep in the glove compartment. The jeep's gas tank sump (the well in the body that the gas tank sat in) had a front & rear drain assembly.  Both drains consisted a neck (similar to a radiator neck #A-3056, #GPW-1111323)  held on by 3 rivets each, and a removable Cap (similar to a radiator cap). The front cap was supposed to be installed at all times to keep out debris kicked up by the front tires, except when flushing out the well. The rear cap was supposed to be removed and stored in the glove box, except when crossing streams or other water fording. After fording the rear cap would be removed allowing the sump to drain. See TM 9-803, pg. 36, item #24.
*Plug, Drain, Floor, Body - Although not a spare part, it was intended to be stored with the items in the Spare Parts Kit on the jeep in the glove compartment. The jeep's front floor pan (the area of the body that the occupants feet sat in) had a drain assemblies. One on the driver's and one on the passenger's side. Both consisted of a pressed in fitting (similar to a round captive nut) and a removable Plug (think pipe plug). The plugs were supposed to be installed in dry periods, and be removed and stored in the glove box during wet periods, such as rains, washings or when crossing streams or other water fording. 1942 GPW Parts Manual TM-10-1348 lists them as 1/4" Plug #358019-S, with a plain raw steel finish. TM-10-1513 lists them as being brass.

Tools Kit
Item Nomenclature Fed #   /   MFG. # Willys # Ford # Storage Location
Adapter, Grease Gun (Early, Short) A-6151 GPW-17126 Bag, Tool
Adapter, Grease Gun, (Mid-Late, Long 2-piece)  41-A-14-800 - Alemite #6344 - Ord.#A-349744 A-11765 GPW-17126 (a) Bag, Tool
Adapter, Grease Gun, (Late, Long 1-piece)  41-A-14-825 - Alemite #6517 GPW-17126-B Bag, Tool
Bag, Tool 41-B-15 A-372 GPW-17005 Right Rear Tool Box
Chains, Snow, Type D, 6.00 x 16 (Qty 4) 8-C-2538 A-1133 GPW-18136 4 Chains in 2 Chain Bags, Right Rear Tool Box
Crank, Hand, Engine Starting 8-C-8322 A-289 GPW-17036 Hangs from clamp on inside of Rear Body Panel
Extinguisher, Fire, (1 Qt. Sprayer) 58-E-202 A-616 GPW-17100A Inside Cowl, Bracket on Driver's side *4
Gauge, Tire Pressure (gage) 8-G-615    - Schrader 7188B A-6855 GPW-18325 Bag, Tool *5
Gun, Grease, Push Type*, 9oz  (Early) ~ pre 4/1944 41-G-1344-40   - Alemite #5585 A-213 GP-17125 Left Rear Tool Box
Gun, Grease, Lever Type*, 16oz  (Late) ~ post 3/1944 41-G-1330-60   Lincoln #1078, ARO #2040
Alemite #6593 (body), Alemite #6594 (ass'y)
G8T-17125 Engine Compartment, under hood in bracket on Driver's side
Hammer, Machinist's 16oz Ball Peen 41-H-523 A-373 GP-17042 Bag, Tool
Jack, Screw type, 1 1/2 ton* 41-J-66   #200-W-G A-1240 GPW-17080 Left Rear Tool Box
Oil Can, Straight Spout, 1/2 pint push bottom 13-O-1530 A-379 GP-17038 Engine Compartment, Driver's Firewall in Bracket
Pliers, Combination, Slip Joint, 6 inch, Wire Cutting 41-P-1650 A-374 GP-17028 Bag, Tool
Puller, Wheel Hub (flange) 41-P-2962-700 A-1339 GPW-17090 Left Rear Tool Box
Pump, Tire
     with Blower Fitting (air chuck & nozzle)
8-P-5000 A-6899
GPW-17025 Under Rear Seat Pan, in Brackets *6
Screwdriver, Common, Heavy Duty, 6 inches 41-S-1076 A-375 GP-17020 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Auto, Adjustable, 11 inches 41-W-449 A-377 GP-17021 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Brake Bleeder, Screw (Open End, Single sided) 41-W-1596-125 A-5130 GPW-17030 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Crescent, 8 inches 41-W-486 A-376 GP-17023 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Socket, Fluted Head Set Screw 41-W-2459-500 A-1492 GPW-17091 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Hub, Wheel Bearing Nut, (2 1/8" socket) 41-W-3825-200 A-692 GP-17033 Left Rear Tool Box
Wrench, Open End, (No.723)     3/8" by 7/16" 41-W-991 A-596 GP-17043 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Open End, (No.25)     1/2" by 19/32" 41-W-1003 A-597 GP-17044 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Open End, (No.27C) 9/16" by 11/16" 41-W-1005-5 A-598 GP-17045 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Open End, (No.28D or 28S)  5/8" by 25/32" 41-W-1008-10 A-599 GP-17046 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Open End, (No.731A)   3/4" by 7/8" 41-W-1012-5 A-600 GP-17047 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Drain Plug, Square, 3/8 41-W1962-50 A-1100 GPW-17062 Bag, Tool
Wrench, Spark Plug, with Handle 41-W-3335-30 or 40 or 50*
(2/1944) TM-9-803
WO-637635 GPW-17017-A
(1942 + 1944)
Bag, Tool
Wrench, Handle, Spark Plug WO-306715 GPW-17011-A Bag, Tool
Wrench, Wheel Lug/Jack Handle, 49/64"  41-W-3837-55  (#41-W-3837-25)  #24832 A-348 GPW-17035 Right Rear Tool Box
*Bolt, Square Head, Rear Axle Puller (4) Installed in 2 tapped holes on each rear axle hub *7
**Compressor, Shock Absorber Grommet 41-C-2554-400   - Monroe #MAS-1148 Left Rear Tool Box or Mechanic's Tool Chest *8
**Lifter, Valve - Valve Compressor /Adjusting Tool 41-L-1410 Left Rear Tool Box or Mechanic's Tool Chest *8
**Wrench, Tappet, Double End, 11/32" x 17/32" 41-W-3575 Bag, Tool *8
***Chest, Tool, Mechanic's (Portable Tool Box)
Box, Tool, S., loose tray, olive drab, enameled, 21" x 8 1/2" x 7 5/16"
Motor Pool Item, not stored on jeep *8
***Pan, (oil) Drain, Iron, 4 Gallon capacity 41-P-125 Motor Pool Item, not stored on jeep *8
***Sockets and Ratchet Socket Sets Motor Pool Item, not stored on jeep *8
*4 ~ Inside cowl, from bracket on passenger's side on Slatgrill MB and Ford Script GPW models.
*5 ~ Also, found: in Glove Box; in homemade pouch on side of front seat; in homemade clips on glove box door, or on top of front grill air deflector panel. per original WWII issues of Army Motors.
*6 ~ Early Script Fords and Slatgrill MB's did not have brackets welded underneath rear seat lower pan. Pump, if issued, would of had to be wedged somewhere.
*7 ~ Word of mouth from many veterans, jeeps in the wild having them on, NOS examples found in Jeep Dealers' inventory.
*8 ~ Special Tools issued to 2nd echelon - only a few would be issued to a group of jeeps. Motor Pool item. fig. 18-94

Adapter, Grease Gun - #41-A-14-800 or #41-A-14-825 - This tool is an extension that slips onto the end of the grease gun that allows the nose of the grease gun to get into tight places such as the drive shaft U-joints, and it develops extra pressure. The tool fits all 3 types of grease guns (Push & Lever action).
There are 4 Versions of Adapters.

  1. The early short/small "thin stem, rigid type" adapter. It looks like a tiny 'fireman's hose nozzle'. It is a simple, short, piece of milled metal that is hard to use because of it's tendency to wobble and fall off of the grease gun. GPW Part #17126, Willys part #A-6151,
  2. The Mid-Late two piece tube shaft "thin stem, sleeve type" having a longer nose than the early adapter. #41-A-14-800 (10/1944). Alemite part #6344, Willys part #A-11765. It is longer, approx. 6" long, cadmium plated, made of multiple pieces of stamped & machined metal, and has a sliding collar over the Zerk fitting at the rear (where it mates to the Grease Gun) to help hold it steady on the Grease Gun. The tube shaft was in 2 pieces and could be unscrewed. The reason for needing it to unscrew is unknown to me. Perhaps it is for greasing a different type of grease fitting.
  3. The Late one piece tube shaft "thin stem, sleeve type" having a longer nose than the early adapter. #41-A-14-825. Alemite part #6517.  Ford part #GPW-17126-b (10/1944). It is longer, approx. 6" long, cadmium plated, made of multiple pieces of stamped & machined metal, and has a sliding collar over the Zerk fitting at the rear (where it mates to the Grease Gun) to help hold it steady on the Grease Gun.
  4. Very late Cup type adapter. This adapter was cadmium plated, very short, approx. 1" by 1/2", (It did not nee to be as long as previous Grease gun Adapters since it was used on Late Lever Action Grease Guns that had a much longer reach to begin with) and machined from round stock. It appears that this type of Grease Gun Adapter was more like a 'Needle Filler'. Instead of snapping onto the Grease Gun's fitting, the Grease gun fitting was unscrewed and this "needle filler' was screwed on in it's place producing a thin, high pressure stream of grease to where ever you shoved the cone shaped end of this Adapter.
Bag, Tool - #41-B-15 - A heavy OD Green canvas bag approx. 20" long by 9 3/4" wide constructed in the shape of an envelope with a triangular closing flap and secured with a 2 straps sewn on the tip of the flap so the bag can be rolled up and tied closed. Many are stenciled with "BAG, ASS'Y, TOOL / FED. STOCK No. / 41-B-15".
Chains, Snow, 6.00 x 16 (Qty 4) - #8-C-2358 - 4 Snow Chains sized to fit a 6:00 x 16 inch tire in 2 canvas Chain Bags are stored in the Right Rear Tool Box. Two sets of chains were carried on every jeep, so that all 4 tires would have maximum traction in mud & snow, however they were the plain twist link chain variety without additional metal pieces welded on for traction. Willys MB and Ford GPW attachment hardware assemblies differed. Several contractor brands are noted and there are varieties in marking on the bags as well.
Crank, Hand, Engine Starting - Both Willys and Ford marked hand cranks exist. The crank was designed to be used if the starter motor failed. In use, the hand crank is inserted into a hole in the face of the front bumper and slides back into a special crankshaft nut that has a round bar going through the middle of it. The Hand Crank's one-way teeth engages the bar in the center of the crank shaft nut. The one way teeth allow the engine to be turned over (by hand) by turning the handcrank.  When the engine fires up, the one-way teeth kick the handcrank off the bar on the engine crankshaft nut.
        Photograph of Jeep Handcrank & mounting clamp, brackets, and wingnut in correct mounting position on WWII Jeep.
    Hand Crank Brackets - The Handcrank hung at an angle against the inside of the Rear Body Panel. It hangs vertically on a bracket with a threaded stud on it welded to the rear body panel. Over this threaded stud a curved clamp bracket (#A-2853) is placed wrapping around the round metal of the hand crank.  The Clamp is secured by a wing nut at the top. Welded to the floor pan are 2 small "L" shaped brackets which also secure the lower ends of the crank.
Fire Extinguisher, 1 Qt. - #58-E-202 -  A brass liquid pump sprayer, made by several manufacturers. The Fire Extinguisher mounted in a bracket, [Early #GPW-17108, #GPW-17103-A (2/1942) or Late #G8T-17103A (10/1944)], on 3 legs (#GPW-17102, #A-693), which are then bolted to the inside cowl of the jeep. There are several versions of early fire extinguisher brackets, but they appear to have been standardized by 1943 with the universal mount that accepts both center and offset pump handles. The bracket mounts on the Drivers side for most jeeps, however the Slatgrill MB and Script GPW had it located on the passenger's side cowl. Original intructions were to: Aim at fire, Twist & Pull handle, then pump by hand.
        Ford Factory Assembly Line photo of Ford Fire Extinguisher in Jeep at bottom of this page.
        Photo of several rare "Ford" script type Fire Extinguishers, next to gray jeep decontaminator.
        Picture of a Fire Extinguisher mounted in the late standardized Fire Extinguisher Bracket in the normal (Driver's side) position on the inside cowl.
        Picture of an Early Slatgrill Flat Bottom style Fire Extinguisher Mounting Bracket in the Early (Passenger's side) position on the inside cowl.
Gauge, Tire Pressure (gage) - #8-G-615 - Service Tire Gauge - A typical 12 1/2" long heavy duty truck tire pressure gage. Nickel plated brass or natural brass finish. Many come with a sliding brass ring loosely attached to the smaller shaft (air tube) portion. The Gauges are stamped with both the manufacturers name, location, and Patent #'s as well as either "US PROPERTY / ORDNANCE DEPT."   or  "US PROPERTY / Q.M.C.". Most commonly seen is the Schrader brand. Another supplier was the Druce Bros. Mfg. Co. of Oakland. Calif. Some, but very few, are dated in the shank.
Grease Guns - Two types of Grease Guns were issued in World War Two. Both were made to fit Zerk type fittings.
    Gun, Grease, Push Type (Early - Mid-War) ~ pre 4/1944 - #41-G-1344-40  /  Alemite #5585  /  #A-213  /  #GP-17125 - The early type was a pistol grip type that used hand pressure to push the grease out the nozzle. The pistol grip was shoved forward  pushing the plunger into the grease filled tube forcing the grease out through the small tube and into the nipple fitting. It was stored in the left rear tool compartment and was issued until sometime between March and April 1944 (per 4-1942 TM 10-1348).It was smaller and held less grease and developed less pressure than the later Lever Action Grease Gun. Alemite Model #5585 should be found stamped into the barrel of the body. I have some that are marked "U.S.N.", most are not marked in any other way.  There are two types of this early model.
The early version (Slatgrill MB's and Script Fords, and Prototype Jeeps) had a solid black Bakelite plastic pistol grip rear handle.
The mid-war version was the same overall configuration with the exception of having a wire loop pistol grip handle. (Bakelite was being conserved for the war effort).
    Gun, Grease, Lever Type (Late) ~ post 3/1944 - #41-G-1330-60  /  Alemite #6593  /  #G8T-17125 - The Late type was issued starting sometime in March or April 1944.  It had a larger capacity and was a Lever Action type Grease Gun and was stored in a special bracket under the driver's side lip of the hood. Driver's side to be exact. Moving the Grease Gun from the rear tool compartment meant a cleaner tool compartment. However, placing the Grease Gun alongside a hot motor can cause the grease to liquefy and the wind will blow drippings into all sorts of hard to reach places. If showing your jeep, leave the Grease Gun empty. The most commonly found ones are from Alemite and marked on the body " Alemite Lever Gun Model - 6593 Stewart-Warner Corp.". The lever handles can be marked as well. I have one NOS Grease Gun from Ft. Lewis, Wa that has the Federal Stock # on it, but it is not a Alemite gun - it looks exactly the same though. The Lever Action grease guns had a longer reach because of the longer thin tube. In addition, a rubber hose could be substituted or added if needed.
        Photograph of Late Grease Gun in Grease Gun Mount on Navy WWII Jeep.
        Photograph of Late Lever Action Grease Gun mounted in Grease Gun Bracket under hood of WWII Jeep.
        Photograph of hood with Grease Gun Bracket removed, showing welded on reinforcements.
       Grease Gun Bracket - A very odd shaped bracket that is often mistakenly called a fire extinguisher mount by novices.  It looks nothing like a fire extinguisher bracket, or any other bracket I know of. It is very distinctive. Once you have seen the bracket installed on a jeep and the perfectly fitting Grease Gun installed in the bracket you won't forget what it looks like. Often jeeps in the wild will be missing the hinged arm that goes around the barrel and hand lever.  This arm locks in place with the same type of catch as found on the 1st Aid Kit mounting Brackets. There are four holes in the bracket for mounting screws that join up to 2 welded reinforcing plates on the inside of the hood. From the outside of the jeep, with hood closed, all you will see are the round heads of the machine screws 8" by 1 1/2" apart.
Hammer, Machinist's 16 oz Ball Peen - #41-H-523 - A standard 1 lb. Ball Peen hammer with a non-painted (bare wood or stained wood) handle with an overall approximate length of 14". The US Government specifications called for 14 3/8" with a tolerance of 1/2" either way. However, when hunting for Jeep hammers, keep in mind that Gov. specs also called for a 11" Adjustable Wrench, yet Ford GPW's were supplied with 12" MOORE Adjustable Wrenches - a full 1" off from the governments specifications. The weight class of a hammer is for its head only, so the actual weight on a scale for the hammer AND HANDLE, will be 4-6 oz heavier than the stated 16oz. due to the weight of the wood and the shims holding the head to the handle. So total combined weights of 1lb 3oz to 1lb 6oz are correct. In addition, many correct hammer heads have had shorter replacement handles fitted over the years as well. A short handle will of course drop the combined weight total.  Just be sure that it is a high quality metal head. They would not have used cheaply made hammer heads, so buy only top quality ones. The 16oz military issue ball peen hammer has a flat striking surface on one side (the 'hammer' side) and a round or rounded peening face on the other side (the 'peen' side). The 'peen' end can be a nice round shape or a more angular (like the pointy end of an egg) shape. Both are believed to be correct. These hammers were produced by many companies and these contractors include; Fairmount, Barcalo Buffalo, Bonney, Williams, Vlchek, Heller, AFH, True Temper, Vaughn, Craftsman, Bond, and several others. Many correct hammers will be marked only with the manufacturer's name, however I do have hammers in my collection with additional markings on them. They include a few with: "US";  "USAAF"; "QMC"; or "ORD" stamped on them. I recall seeing a "USN" one as well. I also have a couple of "Ford" marked hammers, but they are not very common. The "FORD" and/or "F" mark is usually very faint and hard to see and it was a very thin die. This probably explains it's rarity as any polishing, wire wheeling, sand blasting, or painting, or glancing missed blows would have obliterated it. If you find a "US", "QMC", etc. marked hammer, but it is not the right weight for a jeep, you should still try to buy it.  It is a military hammer from  some other toolkit. Hammers of various sizes were also included in many other military tool kits and in onboard tool kits of other military vehicles, and this explains the large number of manufacturers and the wide variety of markings. There are many people who collect military marked tools in general. If you don't add it to your personal collection, it makes for good trading material.
Jack - #41-J-66 -  Rectangular base (square base are post WWII). Round opening on ratchet mechanism. Round opening is for long end of lug wrench to act as jack handle. (A flat slot opening is civilian car jack, not a jeep jack). Jack was stored in the rear fender tool box. It works by inserting the long end of the lug wrench into a round opening on the top hat of the "T" shaped portion of the jack and then by ratchet action (left to right) either raises or lowers depending on how a twistable tab is positioned. The tab is pulled out and twisted and then released to change from raise to lower. The tab is marked "UP" and "DOWN". the jack is approx. 6 1/2 " tall, and the base is slightly larger than 6" by 4". There are photos in manuals for the very earliest Slatgrill MB and Script Ford GPW Jeeps showing a scissors type jack in the tool inspection layout. Please contact me if you have any other information on these early jeep jacks.
        Photograph of Ford GPW Jack with Round top rest pad cup.
        Photograph of Willys MB WWII Jack with Oval top rest pad cup.
Oil Can, Straight Spout, 1/2 pint, push bottom - #13-O-1530 - #A-379 - A typical 1/2 pint click the bottom oil can mounted in a special bracket (Holder #GP-17037, #A-313) inside the engine compartment, on the driver's side firewall near carb & manifolds. Several manufacturers made them - desired ones being: Eagle or Gem, Noera and others. One NOS surplus crate containing 100 oil cans individually wrapped had 5 different manufacturers, 3 types of spouts, and some were painted OD, others were in black cosmoline, and still others in bare oiled metal.
        Photograph of 'Gem' Oil Can & Oil Can Bracket mounted in WWII Navy MB/GPW Jeep.
    Oil Can Bracket - #GP-17037 - #A-313 - A horizontal "L" shaped bracket that was bolted to the firewall under the hood of a jeep on the drivers side between the engine block and horn with the oil can  spout coming up by the carb.  The bottom of the bracket had a sliding piece on it with 2 raised hooks towards the front. This part (with the hooks) had a spring attached to it drawing the hooks back. The oil can was placed into the hooks and pulled forward until the rear of the oil can's bottom lip caught in a notch at the rear.  The hooks were prevented from retracting by the oil can. The tension from the hooks kept the oil can in the bracket. Some Oil Can Brackets are "1943" dated, but the majority are not.
Pliers, Combination, Slip Joint, 6 inch, Wire Cutting -# 41-P-1650 - Standard 6" Pliers that were adjustable to 2 positions through the slip joint <pivot point>.  The very bottom portion of the jaws overlapped when closed, but did not overlap when opened. This overlap allowed a wire to be inserted into the gap and cut when hand pressure was applied to the grip to close the overlap. Several tool companies made appropriote pliers. They include: CEE TEE, Fairmount, Utica, Barcalo Buffalo, Williams, Vlchek, MH (McKAIG - HATCH), JP Danielson, Diamond, and Ford. Photos exist in manuals showing the end of one handle being ground down into a screwdriver tip. In fact having a screwdriver tip at the bottom of one of the arms is very common on the "Ford" script pliers. Pliers found NOS in the boxed kits usually do not have the screwdriver tip, but only a couple of unopened boxes have been found.  So you can say that Pliers came without the driver tip handle, AND the photos in manuals indicate that they also came with the screwdriver tip.
Puller, Hub - #41-P-2962-700 - 1/2 cone shaped tool that pulls the front wheel hub flange off the hub and front axle shaft to allow access to the axle nuts and wheel bearings. The Tool is a cast iron tool, and part #'s are cast into it. Ford's have a "F" stamp. The top of the cone is drilled & tapped for a 3/8 NC bolt to go through. The bolt was not issued with the tool. You were instructed by the manuals to use one of the bolts you just removed from the Hub Flange. The bottom of the tool has a lip which fits around and catches on the Hub Flange. When the bolt at the top is turned, the bolt proceeds into the cone and makes contact with the axle shaft face, applying a pressure that pulls the flange off the splines of the axle shaft.
Pump, Tire, with Blower Fitting (air chuck & nozzle) - #8-P-5000 - There are several versions of Tire Pumps issued. I have 9 different types in my collection. There are several manufacturers, Walker and Dalton being the 2 most common.  Some manufacturers even made several different versions of tire pumps. The Pumps were made with a very pronounced "US" on the top of the left foot pad. (I have one exception, which is marked "USA" instead of "US").  I have only seen 2 like this. On the top of the foot pad on the right side was a raised "QMC" or "ORD". You would want a pump marked by the dept. overseeing jeep procurement at the time of your jeeps production. Check your Data Plates on the dash. It will say either Quartermaster Corps, or Ordnance Department. My estimate is that the QMC's are rarer than the Ord. marked ones as the Ordnance Dept. oversaw procurement when production was at it's peak. On the end of the rubber hose was a fitting which screwed on to the Tire Valve Stem. Also on the rubber hose, secured by a metal chain and metal loop that went around the hose, was a blower tip fitting. There are more than one variety of the blower tip. The difference is in the machining, One simple type not often seen is just a turned down tube treaded at one end, and in the middle of the tube a groove has been cut and one link of the "S" chain goes tightly into and around this groove. The other more common fitting is more complicated. It has two raised ribs on the shaft. Between these two raised ribs is a smaller metal band that is a retaining loop that is attached to the over end of the chain. The blower tip was used for such things as drying out distributor caps, blowing out fuel lines, and filling air mattresses if the GI was lucky enough to have one.
    Tire Pump Mounting Brackets - mid way in 1942 brackets were installed under the rear seat pan to secure the Tire Pump & Hose with Blower Tip. First the pump was placed in the base bracket, which is on the passenger side, and then the pump handle was brought to the Stud that was welded to the bottom of the seat on the driver's side. A curved and forked clamp went onto the treaded stud and a wingnut tightened it down after the other end of the clamp had grabbed the pump wood handle. Next the rubber hose was wound once around the tube of the pump and then brought back to the base bracket where the Blower Tip Fitting went into a small hole punched in a small finger of metal extending from the base bracket. the fitting of the hose was on one side, and the Blower Tip fitting on the other side. the Blower Tip Fitting was then inserted into the hole and the Hose Fitting threaded onto it, thus securing the hose in place to the base bracket and keeping the hose from sliding around and getting in peoples feet. Early Script Fords and Slatgrill MB's did not have Base Bracket (#-A4516) and Clamp (#A-4518) welded underneath rear seat lower pan. The Tire Pump, if issued, would of had to be wedged somewhere, most likely against the handcrank.
Screwdriver, Common, Heavy Duty, 6 inches - #41-S-1076 - An early wood and metal screwdriver approx. 11 1/4" long. The metal blade is approx. 6" long.  The metal runs the full length with 2 wooden side grips riveted on. The metal is bare, while the wood grips can be clear to yellow varnished, while other show up with a med. brown stain finish. The WWII MB/GPW Jeep manual shows a picture of the screwdriver with "IRWIN / MADE IN U.S.A." on the wood handle marked in ink or paint. Other Military Vehicle and Military Manuals show additional photos of the #41-S-1076 screwdriver as part of other motor pool mechanics tool kits. The companies that produced these screw drivers are; There are 5 variations of markings on the IRWIN screwdrivers:
  1. wood handle inked "IRWIN - MADE IN U.S.A."
  2. metal shaft marked "IRWIN  -  US of A  -  GOV. STOCK  #41-S-1076"
  3. metal shaft marked "IRWIN  -  US of A."
  4. metal shaft marked "IRWIN  -  USA"
  5. metal shaft marked "IRWIN"
The most popular screwdrivers for jeep restorers are the ones where the shank or shaft of the metal is stamped "IRWIN US of A  -  GOV. STOCK #41-S-1076".
Wrench, Auto, Adjustable, 11 inches - #41-W-448 - An adjustable wrench 11" long usually left in a natural oiled bare metal finish although they are sometimes found painted black as well. This tool also doubles as the leverage handle for the Hub Socket Wrench #41-W-3825-200 when removing axle nuts. The wrench's handle slides into the slots punched in the Hub Socket so that torque can be applied to tighten and loosen the wheel bearing nuts. There were many tool manufacturers who made this wrench. When determining if the 11" adjustable wrench you have is an actual jeep wrench, the most important thing to look for in this wrench is that the wrench handle MUST FIT INTO BOTH OF THE SLOTS on the Hub Socket Wrench. Most wrenches are too thick to fit in the narrow openings on the hub Socket, while other wrench handles only go through one hole on one side, but not both holes at the same time because the many wrench handles gets thicker the higher up the handle you go, so that it won't slide in far enough to make it to the second hole in the hub wrench. You do not have the right wrench if it doesn't go into both holes cleanly. Caveat: be sure the holes in your Hub Socket tool haven't suffered an impact or dent.  I have seen several Hub Sockets that were only just slightly banged, but the bang resulted in deforming (closing up) the hole enough that the 11 inch adjustable wrench handle no longer slid in properly. Fairmount (Fairmont - I have one where they miss spelled their own name), Diamond Calk,  Diamond Calk "USN - N.A.F." = US Navy - Naval Air Facilities (less likely, but also possible... Naval Aircraft Factory or Navy Air Forces), Lakeside, Billings & Spencer, Barcalo Buffalo, and a couple marked with the #41-W-448 part number. (I have them in both raised and recessed letters), and Vlchek. Most Vlchek wrenches have a curved grip handle. These curved handle Vlcheks are for the Dodge military vehicle tool kits. They are usually too fat to fit through the holes in the Hub Socket Tool, however both during WWII and after, I have been told, and found examples of curved handle Vlchek wrenches that do fit in the Hub Socket tool holes because they were ground down in the machine shop. Another example of the 'Semper Gumby' (Always Flexible), CAN DO spirit that helped to "KEEP EM ROLLING" when the correct tool wasn't available. While not 100% correct for the factory fresh turn key jeep restoration, these 'made to fit in the field' examples could be displayed as correct for a 'combat ready' in service jeep restoration display. Moore was another company that produced these wrenches for the military.  The GPW parts layout photo in the WWII Jeep manual clearly shows a Moore 12 inch adjustable wrench. I have found the Moore 12" adjustable wrench in both black paint and bare metal as well. Even though the 12 in. Moore wrench's handle is longer, it still goes though both holes on the Hub Socket tool the same as its slightly shorter cousins.
Wrench, Brake Bleeder, Screw, Open End, Single sided - #41-W-1596-125 - A small short (3 1/2") one sided wrench stamped out of thin flat metal rather than forged like the other wrenches. I have found the cadmium plated wrenches with bare Cadmium finish as well as painted black and painted OD. They do come marked in all 3 versions. Stamped with a:
  1. Federal Sock #
  2. Willys Part #
  3. Ford Part # and a script "F"
Wrench, Crescent, 8 inches - #41-W-486 - 8 inch Adjustable Wrench or Crescent Wrench was included in the prototype Ford GP, the early Script Ford GPW, and the Slatgrill Willys MB Tool kits as well as the tool kits for the standardized Willys MB and Ford GPW... at least up to the middle of 1943. The 8" Adjustable Wrench is not listed in MB/GPW manuals as being part of the tool kit in 1944 and 1945. However it is listed as being part of the Motor Pool Mechanics tool kit. So this wrench should be displayed as part of your 1941, 1942, 1943 GP, MB or GPW onboard tool set. Many companies made them including: Barcalo Buffalo, Fairmount, JP Daniels, Williams, Utica, Crescent, Diamond Calk, and others. Willys MB part #A-376. Ford GP & Ford GPW part #GP-17023.
Wrench, Socket, Fluted Head Set Screw, "Bristol" type - #41-W-2459-500 - Looking very much like a Allen Head Wrench, but it isn't. It is not hexagon sided like an Allen Head, rather it has a star-like pattern of teeth like a gear cut into it. The Fluted Head Socket Wrench was used to loosen the set screws for removing, installing, or adjusting the shifting forks on the shift rails in the MB/GPW T-84 Transmissions. It is a small "L" shaped wrench/key 2 5/8" by 1" with a black oxide finish.
Wrench, Hub, Wheel Bearing Nut, (2 1/8" socket) - #41-W-3825-200 - This socket is used to remove the axle nuts to R&R the wheel bearings. This is a very large socket made from approximately 2 1/2" round tube stock. It is approx. 3 1/2" deep with one end being pressed into a hex shape to fit the 2 1/8" wheel bearing nuts. The other round end has had 2 oval slots punched into it to allow the 11" Adjustable Wrench to be used as a handle and apply force to tighten and remove the nuts. Willys are painted dark OD green and have the Willys part # stamped into it.  The Ford as "Ford" marked and have the Ford part # stamped into the unpainted surface. The fed part # marked ones are found with what looks like a black oxide finish.
Wrenches, Open End - 5 sizes of double open end wrenches were kept in the tool roll. The lengths of the wrenches increased in size with the size of the openings. Be wary of buying the many "FORD" script wrenches offered. The size combinations are incorrect.  The correct size combo's are listed below.
#41-W-1012-5 3/4" by 7/8" #731A approx. length 9"
#41-W-1008-10 5/8" by 25/32" #28-S or #28-D approx. length 8"
#41-W-1005-5 9/16" by 11/16" #27C  approx. length 7"
#41-W-1003 1/2" by 11/32" #25 approx. length 6"
#41-W-991  3/8" by 7/16" #723 approx. length 5"
Wrench, Drain Plug, Square, 3/8 - #41-W1962-50 - This tool was used by shoving into the recessed square holes on gear housings' drain plugs. This allowed a mechanic to get a wrench on the bar stock for greater leverage. It is 3/8" square bar stock that is 2 1/2" long.
Wrench, Spark Plug, with Handle -#41-W-3335-30   -40  -50* (2/1944) - TM-9-803 - A tall hollow tube of round stock metal that was pressed at one end into a hex shape to fit over and grip a spark plug. At the top of the tube 2 holes have been punched for a 3/8' round metal handle to be inserted. It appears that the suffix #'s were changed for some reason. Different manuals call for different part #'s and sockets exist bearing the different #'s. The fact that Ford offered an "A" suffix leads to speculation that there was a first version with no suffix, then a "A" version, and perhaps a "B" version as well. Heights and finishes vary as well; 3" - 4" tall, and WO and Fed#'d ones exist. Black oxide, silver cadmium, and OD paint finishes as well.
Wrench, Handle, Spark Plug - #WO-306715 / #GPW-17011-A - The handle is nothing more than a solid piece of 3/8" round stock metal with a single widened section at one end. The widened end keeps the handle from sliding all the way through the 2 holes punched in the Spark Plug Socket
Wrench, Wheel Lug/Jack Handle - #41-W-3837-55 (41-W-3837-25) - An 'L' shaped lug wrench approximately 10" long by 5" deep made from round stock metal, with lug nut socket on short end. The long narrow round end does duty as handle for vehicle jack. Note: Item # inconsistent between manuals. #41-W-3837-55 is correct #.  Originals are found painted flat black, OD green, and silver.
Handles are found marked in 3 versions.
  1. Federal #41-W-3837-55
  2. Willys Part #A-348
  3. Ford script
* Bolt, Square Head, Rear Axle Puller (4) - 2 short square head bolts installed in 2 tapped holes on each rear axle hub. To use, the 6 hub bolts were removed, and the 2 Square Head bolts were then screwed all the way in. As the bolts passed though the axleshaft hub flange, they hit the solid face of the hub. Since the hub wasn't going anywhere, the flange would be drawn away and out of the hub allowing the rear axle shaft to be removed from the jeep. This information comes from several sources; Word of mouth from several motor pool veterans, jeeps in the wild having them installed on the jeep when found, NOS examples found in Jeep Dealers' inventory. I have found more late war jeeps with these than early war jeeps. 4 per jeep. I at first thought they would be stored in the tool roll since you would not want to snap one off, but I was informed by the veterans that they threaded them in to the axle shaft hub flanges and left them there because it was a common complaint that those threaded hole, if left empty quickly filled up with hardened dirt & grease from use and made it extremely difficult to clean out the threads in the field. The fact that I have found jeeps in the wild with them installed seems to prove the veterans right.
Special Tools - issued to 2nd echelon
** Compressor, Shock Absorber Grommet - #41-C-2554-400 (#MAS-1148  Monroe) - Used on WWII Army Jeeps to compress the rubber bushings into the Shock Absorber mounting loops, so that a washer and cotter pin could be dropped into the hole in the Shock Mount Stud welded on the jeeps. (Bantam T-3 Jeep Trailers did not need this tool as they used a nut and threaded Shock Mount Stud).  Early Tools were made from brass, while later tools were made from iron. See TM9-803, pg. 73. Only a few would be issued to a group of jeeps. Motor Pool item.
** Lifter, Valve - #41-L-1410 - Valve Lifter Tool, Fed. Stk. No. 41-L-1410 was the tool used to hold and compress the L134 engine's valve springs while making adjustments to the jeep's engine. Only a few Valve Lifting Tools would be issued to a group of jeeps as a Motorpool item. They were used in conjunction with the Valve Tappet Wrenches. These tools, also known as Valve Compressors and Valve Spring Adjusting Tools, were made from stamped steel, with pot metal adjusting handles. This is the tool that was used to adjust or to remove the valve springs in the WWII Jeep Flat Head Engine. Valve Lifter Tool, #41-L-1410, was used on both the WWII Willys MB & Ford GPW Jeeps, and it was also used on the Willys MA, and Ford GPA. It continued to be used after the war on M-38 military jeeps and civilian CJ-2A jeeps.  It can be used on any vehicle with the L-134 Flathead Jeep Engine. This is a great tool to have in your WWII Motor Pool Mechanics Tool Kit or in your MB, GPW, MA, GPA, M38, Early CJ Special Purpose Tool Kit. These tools were manufactured by several companies with each brand slightly altering the design.  The No. 675  made by WILDE  K. C. MO. (Kansas City, MO) followed by the patent number underneath is one example. See TM-9-1803A Sec 6-7 Figure 10 and TM-9-1803A Sec 18 Figure 32 for photos and instructions.  A rare tool as only a few would be issued to a group of jeeps. Motor Pool item.
** Wrench, Tappet, Double End, 11/32" by 17/32" - #41-W-3575 - only a few would be issued to a group of jeeps. Army Motorpool item. Tappet Wrenches #41-W-3575 were the tools used to adjust the L134 engine's valve springs on the jeep's engine. Only a few Valve Tappet Wrenches would be issued to a group of jeeps as a Motorpool item. These are the wrenches that were used to adjust or to remove the valve springs in the WWII Jeep Flat Head Engine and were used in conjunction with the Valve Lifter Tool # 41-L-1410.  It takes 2 of these 11/32" x 17/32" wrenches to do the valve adjustments. Valve Tappet Wrenches, #41-W-3575, were used on both the WWII Willys MB & Ford GPW Jeeps, and were also used on the Willys MA, and Ford GPA. They continued to be used after the war on M-38 military jeeps and early civilian CJ-2A jeeps.  They can be used on any vehicle with the L-134 Flathead Jeep Engine.  There are 2 known sets used in WWII for adjusting the valve tappets on the L134 Flat head jeep engines. A darker gray parkerized set with "41-W-3575" in raised letters in the center, and a light grey parkerized or polished nickel chrome set MFG. by Lane Irons Works. The Lane Iron Works set is marked with the 41-W-3575 stamped into the metal off to the side. This is a great tool to have in your WWII Motor Pool Mechanics Tool Kit or in your MB, GPW, MA, GPA, M38, Early CJ Special Purpose Tool Kit.  See MB/GPW Maintenance Manual TM-9-1803A Sec 18 Figure 33 which shows how to adjust valve tappets. TM 9-803 under special tools, you will see the 41-W-3575 in there along with the measurements for the valve tappet wrenches.  A rare tool as only a few would be issued to a group of jeeps. Motor Pool item.
***Chest, Tool, Mechanic's // Box, Tool, S., loose tray, olive drab, enameled, 21" x 8 1/2" x 7 5/16" - #41-B-1833 replaced by #41-B-1840 - (Portable Tool Box)  - Stamped steel construction. The manufacturer's name and Fed Stk # are often stamped under the handles. Toolbox comes with a removable tray for sockets, etc. Only a few toolboxes would be issued to a group of jeeps. Army Motorpool item.
*** Pan, Oil Drain - Motor pool item, not stored on jeep. A nice steel oval drain pan. A metal wire folding handle extends so you can slide pan under and remove pan from under jeep. the bottom of the pan has two metal runners or skids to protect pan bottom.  The top of the pan has a small mesh wire screen over it to catch any dropped bolts and keep them from falling into the 5" deep oil holding tank. The top of the pan is covered with slightly sloping sheet metal with a 2" hole at the end. To use, handle is unfolded and the pan slid under the jeep. The jeeps oil drain plug is removed and the oil streams down onto the mesh screen which catches any debris. As the oil passes through the screen it goes 1/8" below the screen onto the top sheet metal. (There is a raised lip of approx. 1/2" to keep the oil from over flowing to the sides).  The oil then travels down the slope to one rounded end where it enters the drain hole and falls into the large capacity holding tank. The chamber looks like it should hold enough oil for 5 or 6 jeeps. The oil filter can be placed on the tank top to drain as well. the assembly is pulled out by the long handle from under the jeep when finished. The long handle is folded over the top for storage and 2 small grab handles on either end can be used to carry the Oil Drain Pan to dispose of the waste oil.
*** Sockets Sets and Ratchets - Ratchets and Socket Sets were issued to higher echelons and to other vehicles as part of the onboard tool kit, but not the 1/4ton Jeep. It is interesting to note that in an attempt to reduce theft loss of their tools during the WWII war years, the US Government ordered their ratchets and sockets in a unique drive size: 9/32nds. These 9/32" Drive tools do not interchange with 1/4" drive tools.
"War Finish" & "WF" Tools - At this point "WF" and "War Finish" Tools should be mentioned.
Tools can be found marked "War Finish". These were tools made during the World War Two years for civilian use, but were manufactured to a lesser quality than the Co had produced them to during peacetime. Because of the war, restrictions were placed on all manufacturing for the civilian market in order that sufficient amounts of critical materials would be available to meet the requirements of industry for the war effort. "War Finish" stamped on a tool would be an indication that the materials used in the tool's manufacture were of a lesser quality, due to those wartime scarcities. "War Finish" tools usually carry the tool manufacturer's standard part number.
"WF" is often equated to "War Finish", but evidence points to a different meaning. The location of a major War Department contracting organization before and during WWII was Wright Field (Wright, Patterson AFB now) which is outside Dayton, Ohio. In addition to executing major contracts with civilian industry, Wright Field also received & distributed goods to the US Armed Forces throughout the world. "WF" more likely indicates Wright Field. Many times a tool will have the letters WF as a prefix or suffix of it's part # as stamped on the tool. This usually implies that the tool was part of a contract initiated by Wright Field. The WF precedes the identifying # on hundreds of thousands tools that were used by the Armed Forces during WWII. These numbers did not correspond to the Mfg. co.'s stock number or catalog number. Several surviving copies of the WW2 era catalogs refer to the WF series tools as Wright Field Tools. Many tool companies stamp their contracted tools with the name or abbreviation of the contracting authority. Tools made under contract to the US Government during WWII were not designed or manufactured with lifetime guarantee of service. They were not guaranteed. Since they were only made to meet the government's specifications, the manufacturer would not want to use their standard catalog tool number which would imply a Lifetime Guarantee for the tool for years to come.
The majority of WF numbered tools, as well as some of the "War Finish" tools made for civilian use during WWII have a light gray dusty finish. This is sometimes construed to be what "War Finish" means. However, if the words “War Finish” were just related to the texture and appearance of the exterior, then stamping them with the words "War Finish" would be both redundant, and an unnecessary added expense that would hardly seem worth the extra effort since there was a war going on. The ardent tool collectors firmly believe that “WF” and “War Finish” did not indicate the color and texture of the tool. Saying instead that “WF” meant “Wright Field”, the contract source and destination of the Government contracted tool. “War Finish” on tools for the civilian market, or other wartime contracts, was an indication that the materials used in the tool's manufacture were of a lesser quality, due to wartime scarcities. - Ref. Source #1 - Ref. Source #2

Standard Issue Equipment & Accessories
Item Nomenclature Fed #   /   MFG. # Willys # Ford # Storage Location
Apparatus, Decontaminating, M-2 (1 1/2 Qt. Sprayer) M-2 Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". Floor under Passenger Seat, in Bracket or elsewhere *9
Ax, Chopping, Single Bit 41-A-1277 Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". Body, Brackets on Driver's side
Bucket, Water, Collapsible Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". on Rear Gas Can, held by Gas Can Strap
Drum, Inflammable-Liquid (Gasoline), Steel, with-Carrying-Handle, 5 Gallon or
Can / Container, Feul / Gas, 5 gal.
42-D-1280 (post WW2 #MIL-C-1283) Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". Includes #64-C-291 Cap, can, 5 gal, w/Chain and cotter key Carrier / Bracket / Rack on Rear Body, driver's side
Can, Water, 5 Gallon 64-C-281 Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". Carrier/Bracket/Rack on 1) driver's side rear body,  or 2) passenger's side step
Covers, Headlight (2) A-3070 GPW-1102980 Under Front Passenger's Seat
Cover, Windshield G503-76-98476 A-3211 (A-3073)*13 GPW-1103214 Under Front Passenger's Seat
Curtain, Body Side, Ass'y L. H. 
(Canvas 1/2 Door)
A-2998 GPW-1120041 Installed or Under Front Passenger's Seat
Curtain, Body Side, Ass'y R. H.
(Canvas 1/2 Door)
A-2999 GPW-1120040 Installed or Under Front Passenger's Seat
Deck, Top, Ass'y (Canvas Top) A-3216 (A-2909)*13 GPW-1152700 Installed or Under Front Passenger's Seat
Kit, First Aid Stock No. 9-221-200   or
Item 9777300  or  "Gas Attack"
Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". Bracket behind the Dashboard, between gauges & glove box
Mask, Dust, M-1 M-1 Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". Glove Box
Nozzle, Flexible Tube, Fuel Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". Left Rear Tool Box
Order, Lubrication Chart 501 Glove Box, or after 11/1943, under hood *10
Rifle Scabbard, Leather - Early Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". Various locations, suspended from leather straps
Rifle Rack, Universal, metal - Late A-11319 GPW-1153100 Inside Vehicle, on brackets on Outer Windshield Frame
Rifle Rack, Universal, (metal - Late) Canvas Cover, zippered A-12721 Inside Vehicle, covering Rifle Rack, metal strips & screws or staples secure it
Shovel, General Purpose, D Handle, Round Point 41-S-3170 Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". Body, Brackets on Driver's side
Spare, Tire, Wheel, & Tube A-465 GPW-1015 & GPW-1501 Body, Rear, from Carrier Bracket / Rack on Pass. side
Spare Tire Lock & Lug Nut A-1319 (Lock) & A-1318 (Nut) On one of the spare tire studs
Book, Maintenance Manual or
Book, TM 9-803
TM 9-803  1944-1945
(TM 9-1803A, TM 9-1803B)
several Willys TM's issued 1941-1943 several Ford TM's issued 1941-1943 Glove Box, or Inside Cushion Under Driver's Seat *11
Book, Parts Manual or
Books, ORD 7 & 9 SNL G-503
ORD 7 & 9 SNL G-503
(ORD 8 SNL)  1944-1945
several Willys TM's issued 1941-1943 several Ford TM's issued 1941-1943 Glove Box, or Inside Cushion Under Driver's Seat *11
Form, War Dept., AGO 478 Glove Box, or Inside Cushion Under Driver's Seat *11
*Cover, Mirror Installed or Under Front Passenger's Seat *12
*Lock, Pad, Brass (2) Item not supplied by the vehicle manufacturer. Added to Jeep after the US Army had taken possession by "Other Technical Services". Installed or Glove Box *12
*9 ~ several other mounting locations also authorized: Back of Left or Right Fender; Between Driver's Seat Back & Body; Top of Rear Fender (inside vehicle).
*10 ~ several versions were made. Early ones were stored in the glove box, later ones in field made brackets, and late one in factory holders.
*11 ~ several versions were made. Early Slatgrill MB ones were stored under the driver's seat in a zippered compartment, later ones in the glove box.
*12 ~ Word of mouth, jeeps in the wild having them on, NOS examples found in Surplus Dealers' inventory, photographic evidence
*13 ~ The 1st 3545 Willys Slatgrill Jeeps had a shorter windshield, so It had different part #'s associated with it.

Apparatus, Decontaminating, M2 - The M-2 Decontaminator was a 1 1/2 Qt. approx. 18" long brass or copper liquid pump sprayer, made by several manufacturers. Labels Can be found in brass, copper, steel, decals, and paper. They are painted a blue-gray color, or can be painted over with OD Green (camouflaged) or a bright yellow for "Follow Me" Jeeps as the case warranted. Photo of blue-gray decontaminator next to several rare "Ford" script Fire Extinguishers. They mounted in a special bracket very similar to a fire extinguisher bracket.  It's purpose was to render neutral and wash away, poison chemical gas residue such as Mustard gas, Phosgene, etc. After a soldier put on his own gas mask, and gas protective cape, he would spray down the jeep by pulling out the handle and pumping, paying special attention to soak the seat and area of the jeep that require human contact to operate the jeep. After waiting 15 minutes a second coating was applied. After the second application had dried, the jeep or vehicle was now considered operable in an emergency. Although this was not a thorough cleaning, it would allow the soldiers some chance of being able to drive away from the scene of a gas attack. The decontamination unit was often used in conjunction with chemically reactive paint. This was a special paint manufactured for the Chemical Warfare Department and was applied in specific areas to provide a visible warning in case of an attack by the enemy using "chemical weapons" such as mustard gas or other blistering agents.  The color of the paint would change drastically - usually to a dark brown - when it came in contact with fumes from a chemical weapon. The special paint was applied to the hood at the National Symbol (US = 5 pointed star). Most often seen on Mid-Late war jeeps where the Star & Surround (the circle around the star) are painted white, and the area Between the star & surround are painted  with the special gas detecting paint. If you look closely at original B/W photos, you will often notice that the gray (OD paint) inside the surround is a different shade than the gray (OD paint) on the rest of the body of the jeep.  This is because it isn't the same OD paint, it is in reality the special "Gas Detecting" paint. Gas detecting paint was used both at the front lines and in the rear areas as this photo of a WWII Air Base "Follow Me Jeep" shows. Here is an original color picture of a group of world war two jeeps on a landing craft about to storm the beaches during an invasion, all jeeps have the interior of the Surround painted in chemical reactive paint aka gas detecting paint.
    Bracket, Apparatus, Decontaminating, M2 - The M-2 Decontaminator was mounted in a special bracket very similar to a fire extinguisher bracket. There are 4 types of brackets made by various companies. The brackets were usually supplied with the decontaminator by the Chemical Warfare Service, US Army and had several correct mounting locations. Composite body jeeps had the mounting holes pre drilled for the bracket at the factory. The standard factory position was to mount it under the passenger seat on the floor behind the right seat along the riser to the rear floor pan. Screws, washers and nuts plugged the holes until needed. There are several other correct mounting positions. Other mounting locations authorized: on the back slope of Left Fender or Right Fender; Between Driver's Seat Back & Body; Top of Rear Fender (inside vehicle).  There is a manual that details the correct position for mounting a Decontaminator (also know as a Decontamiator Device) and bracket depending on what branch of service the jeep was attached to, and what other equipment existed on the jeep.
Ax (axe), Single Bit, (Pioneer Tool) - #41-A-1277 - The blade slips into a metal sheath welded to the jeep body tub. The Mall (fat end) of the ax rests in a hinged bracket that is held in place by a strap. Ax handle fits through a loop bolted to the body of the jeep. The 4lb axes were made by several companies. Military axes usually have squared corners on the mall face, while civilian ones have rounded corners. Ax head and handle should both be painted OD green. Axes came in different blade-to-head lengths. The early jeeps, both Ford Script GPW and Willys Slatgrill MB took an ax bracket with only 2 mounting holes. The flat steel section of the mounting bracket was shorter than the standard jeep ax bracket.  Early in 1942 the mounting section was lengthened to accommodate 2 extra mounting holes that were added to allow the bracket to hang lower on the jeep allowing longer ax heads to be mounted. The ax blade slipped into a metal sheath that was spot welded to the side of the jeep's body tub. Photograph showing standard 4 holed ax bracket and ax sheath. Notice incorrect number of footman loops. 3 is correct, 4 is not.
    Ax Strap - The ax strap is fastened to the top footman loop with the buckle facing forward. The strap runs down through the metal ax bracket wire loop and then back up into it's own buckle.  Photograph showing correct running of ax and shovel straps. Notice correct number (3) of footman loops.
Bucket, Water, Collapsible - Jeeps were issued with a collapsible Water Bucket folded up and stored on the rear gas can. See TM9-803 Feb. 1944, page 67, 3rd item. The water bucket has two straps "X" along the bottom.  The gas can strap goes under the gas can metal handles, over the canvas water bucket body and under the water bucket's canvas "X" straps, and then meets the buckle of the other gas can strap. This secures the Water Bucket between the gas can and gas can strap.
        Photograph of a 1943 Ford GPW Army Jeep with water bucket.
        Picture of a 1942 Willys Slatgrill, as seen in this photo, the USMC used water buckets too.
Can, Gas / Container, 5 gallon  ~ AKA ~ Drum, Fuel, 5 gal. ~ AKA ~ Gas Can / Jerry Can / jerrican / blitz can / jeep can
    Officially "Drum, Inflammable-Liquid (Gasoline), Steel, with-Carrying-Handle, 5 Gallon"
        Early Flimsies & Round Gas Cans - Army gasoline cans were originally, cube shaped ones called "Flimsies", or round barrel shaped cans. The Flimseys were notorious for leaking. The handles were wire loop style and folded flat into the recessed hand hold. They had either flat or corrugated side panels and appear to be galvanized.  They are marked with stamped letters re: procurement agency they were issued to. I have one each marked: "U. S. A.",  "U. S. N.",  "A. A. F.".  I have not seem a USMC marked flimsey - as of yet.
        British & German Gas Cans - Germany is credited with designing a better portable gasoline storage container. Their design would minimize the loss of fuel during supply and battle. Developed under secrecy,  the final version consisted of two halves, welded together and it had "X" impressions on the side panels which made it stronger than the earlier fuel containers. Another very important feature were the 3 handles at the top. The 3 handles would: 1) Let one man carry two cans and hand them over to a second man.  2) Let two men to carry one can between them. 3) Make it easy to pass cans along in a "bucket brigade" (passing the containers from one man to the next). The center handle was for carrying by an individual soldier, the two on either side were used for teamwork applications.
The filler tube and cam lock cap of german design is also clever. It is designed with an internal air pipe from the pour neck to the air pocket which allows for even and constant flow when emptying. Due to its built in air pocket, the gas can will float in water if dropped, even when full of fuel. It had room for 20 liters of liquid and it weighed approximately 20.5 kg when full. The British named the "Jerry" can after the Germans. "Jerry" was a slang term the Allies had for the Germans during the World Wars.
        Early US Gas Cans of British/German style - The US saw what the Germans, and shortly thereafter the British, were doing with stackable, compact, easily handed from person to person in a "Bucket Brigade" fashion "jerry can" style of gas can.  The US quickly went into production making copies of that style. It appears that some of the very earliest US produced cans were in fact Exact copies of the half seamed, cam lock British / German style cans. They were not marked or dated, so you can't tell when they were manufactured. These cans have an "X" reinforcement stamped into both side panels, but not the indented square portion in the center common to the English and Nazi cans. There are quite a few early WWII photos around showing these type of gerry cans in use by marines in the pacific as well as by the Army in N. Africa & Europe. These are the so called 'Mystery Cans'.
        Standard US WWII Gas Cans - #42-D-1280 - US companies quickly redesigned the way the can was manufactured and standardized it. The US version was a quickly produced machine made version, that differed slightly from the UK/German style which was 2 halves stamped and then welded together. This UK/German version lent itself to be produced in smaller shops, but fewer units could be produced per hour. The US version required large machinery, but the production capacity was greatly improved. The US version has a bottom, a top, a rolled and welded side, and welded on handle assembly.  US standard cans were 1st made in 1941. Many of the first cans were galvanized. These cans are stamped with the dates on the bottom along with the manufacturers name.  In addition, the fluid capacity is also shown in both standard and metric values.  The manufacturers varied ever so slightly on how they determined the fluid capacity, so cans will vary from each other in the fluid capacity stamped into the bottom.  The 5 refers to 5 gallons. The 20 refers to liters. They listed metric values because gas cans were part of "Lend Lease" sent to Russia, China, Canada, Australia, India, England and other far flung regions. ICC is the Interstate Commerce Commission. Gas cans fell under their jurisdiction, so all gas cans were required to show the volume of gasoline capacity along with I.C.C.  Water was not under ICC jurisdiction, so most water cans are not stamped ICC.
The Jerry Can unit consists of several components;

Each of these subparts was available as a separate supply item so that lost or damaged parts could be replaced.
Early Cans - 1941, 1942
Late Cans - late 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945
Early differences in Gas / Jerry / Jerri / Blitz cans Late differences in Gas / Jerry / Jerri / Blitz cans
  • painted normal steel construction
  • Four eared screw on lid
  • Cap has metal wire loop attached to chain, then cotter pin attaches it to the can handle
  • WWII gas cans can be quickly spotted among postwar cans by the following method.
    WWII cans have "U.S.A." on one side (for US Army - USMC, USN also produced), and "Q.M.C." stamped on the other side (for Quarter Master Corps).
    Post war cans are usually found with "US" stamped on both sides.
            USMC Gas Cans - 90% of the cans I find marked "USMC" are NOT "US Marine Corps" cans, but instead a postwar can made by United States Metal Corp. They are still in business today stamping USMC cans. I see people often selling them as Marine Corps cans. Real USMC cans have a small cam-lock style lid like the german type gerricans. This allows for better pouring when a nozzle or funnel isn't handy. Real USMC cans are manufactured and dated like the normal  gas cans. I have seen U. S. M. C. cans dated 1943, 1944, 1945. I have encountered a few "USN" marked jerricans as well.
        Gas Can Caps - #64-C-291 Caps, can, 5 gal, w/Chain and cotter key -
    The 1st style (Very Early) caps made in 1941, and early 1942 had only 2 straight raised ears to use when opening/closing the can cap. Cap is secured to gas can by a riveted on chain.
    The 2nd style featured 4 straight raised ears to use when opening/closing the can cap. Cap is secured to the gas can by a metal loop, chain and cotter pin.
    The 3rd style featured 4 round rolled raised ears to use when opening/closing the can cap. Cap is secured to gas can by a metal loop, chain and cotter pin.
    Early water cans also had the same caps and attachment method. One source states that during World War II Rieke Metal Products Corp. made the military gas can lids and that Auburn Rubber Company made the gaskets. I'm sure there were several other companies making both as well.
    The gas can spout (see below) was used as a tool to open and close the gas caps on a can. The nozzle was laid sideways on top of the cap with the flexible metal tube engaging the raised ears on the can's cap increasing the leverage force available to open or close the gas can cap.  Early in the war gas cans only had 2 raised ears on the gas can caps. By early 1942 it was noticed that sometimes the 2 ears of the gas can lid aligned in such a way that they were in a position where the filler tube could not be used to loosen a stuck closed gas can lid (cap). Having more ears would solve this problem, so 2 more ears were added to the gas can caps by mid-1942 and gas can lids have come with 4 ears ever since.
        Gas Can Spouts ~ Nozzle, Flexible Tube, Fuel - Flexible metal spouts were issued to transfer the gasoline into the various vehicle gas tanks. The most common issue spout is the one for the standard American style gas cans. For the standard US type large mouth Jerry Cans, a flexible spout was issued (also called the donkey dick or donkey dong by irreverent GI's). The flexible coiled metal spout diameter is about one inch; a far larger diameter than most of the civilian gas can spouts made today. WWII GI ones were made to fit the wide-mouth gas tank openings and filler tubes of military combat vehicles. Larger diameter meant faster filling and less time being vulnerable as a "sitting duck". This larger diameter also means it won't fit in the 'restricted for unleaded gasoline only' gas filler openings on modern American civilian vehicles. The spout is usually ~16 inches long from the end of the screw on cap holding the brass screen filter to the end of the base. The WWII flexible pouring spout had a screw-on cap with a deep soldered cone or "V" shaped strainer over the end. The WW2 spout cap end should have a screw on 3-4" long soldered brass funnel. This V-shape had a larger surface area than a flat brass filter would, meaning it would allow more gas to pass though before  it needed to be cleaned. This cap filter is in addition to the Fuel Filter and the fuel pump strainer found on the jeeps and military vehicles themselves. Post war manufactured spouts have a flat or a concave domed brass screen strainer. The MILITARY gas can pour spouts did not screw into the threads of the jerry can opening.  Instead, at the base of the spout was an rubber expansion seal (a ring of rubber) and a lever that would compress and therefore expanded the ring outwards sealing the spout to the can when the lever was pushed down away from the body of the spout.  The spout base was pushed into the opening of the gas can, the lever pushed down, and the rubber seal ring was pushed tight up against the threaded opening to create a seal. That seal was often leaky, but the design was not changed. Another feature of the base is that it has a stepped lip that keeps the spout from falling into the can before the cam lever is pressed down to expand the seal. The lip was designed to not be as wide as the jerry can lid / cap. This way it doesn't cover the breather hole in the can. While the cap does cover the hole to prevent leaking, you want the hole uncovered when pouring to prevent surges of fuel from 'glugging' when there is a vacuum being created when the fuel leaves the can flowing into the nozzle and from there into the vehicle's gas tank. The vent hole prevents the vacuum from being created by replacing the outgoing flowing gas with incoming air. Many of the civilian 'made in Taiwan' filler spout nozzles cover the breather air hole and that is why they often make such a mess when pouring gasoline - because the exiting gasoline is forced to fight its way past incoming bubbles of air.
    The pour spouts expansion seals can be rebuilt and the rubber rings replaced. The WWII nozzle's base end have 2 large screws - one on each side - that hold the cam lever on. Removing the screws allows the lever arm to come off as well as allowing the various plates & rubber seal pieces to slide off the nozzle. Many spout are stamped US on the inside of the lever as well as sometimes the name of the manufacturer (USMC - US Metal Corp. for example). This is also where many of the postwar ones are dated.
    The gas can spouts were also used as a tool to loosen and tighten the gas caps on a gas can. The nozzle was laid sideways on top of the cap with the flexible metal tube engaging the raised ears on the can's cap increasing the leverage force available to open or close the gas can cap.  Early in the war gas cans only had 2 raised ears on the gas can caps. By early 1942 it was noticed that sometimes the 2 ears of the gas can lid aligned in such a way that they were in a position where the filler tube could not be used to loosen a stuck closed gas can lid (cap). Having more ears would solve this problem, so 2 more ears were added to the gas can caps by mid-1942 and gas can lids have come with 4 ears ever since.
        Gas Can Octane Tags - Sometimes a metal clip stamped with a raised "80" inside a circle was placed at the end of the middle handle of the standard gas can to aid in identifying the contents in low light/Black Out situations. They were color coded and came in different shapes. They were needed to help keep fuels, kerosene, and oils separate. A system of tagging was developed. Made in different shapes of tags for different kinds of fuel or lubrications. Designed so you can feel the shape of the tag and trace out the shape of the letters and figures in the dark. Fuels were marked with the octane rating or the symbol "K" (for kerosene) or "D" (for Diesel). Also on the fuel tags in the lower corner is a smaller letter indicating whether the product is Class A, B, C, or X. representing the temperature ranges for which the fuel is designed. Class A is for the warmest weather, C or X for the coldest. Lubrication tags carry the official symbol, such as 0E 30 HD - "OE" (oil, engine) or "GO" (gear oil), and raised lettering to tell the grade (10, 30, or 50). The tags were also painted different colors to quickly ID contents in well lighted conditions. The Red 80 Octane tags are the appropriate tags for a WWII jeep can.  The other tags are as as follows;
    Black - diesel fuel Yellow - engine oil OE 10 HD lubricant
    Gray - kerosene fuel (different shape than -->) Gray - engine oil OE 30 HD lubricant
    Red - gasoline 80 octane fuel Maroon - engine oil OE 50 HD lubricant
    Orange - gasoline 72 octane fuel Light Blue - gear oil GO 80 lubricant
    White - gear oil GO 90 lubricant
        Gas Can Bracket / Rack - #42-B-22590 - This is as good a spot as any to describe the WWII Jeep 5 gallon can rack. Officially the "Bracket, Drum, inflammable liquid (gasoline), steel welded, complete w/strap". The WWII military racks are made of a very heavy duty (thick) gauge metal. there are 4 bolt holes on the bottom, and 4 more on the back. The gas can is held in place on the Gac Can Rack by a Gas Can Strap set. The strap set consists of 2 straps riveted to the Can Rack. One strap has a Buckle, the other strap has a large metal Tip pressed flat on it. It was a universal bracket designed to fit on as many different vehicles as possible in as many different positions as possible.  The way to tell an appropriate Military Rack from a non appropriate one is to look for 2 raised pads inside on the bottom of the floor of the rack. One on each side L&R. They are 1/2 moon shaped. The purpose was to raise the can slightly above the floor to allow air to flow between the can bottom and floor of the rack. This way water would not be trapped and lead to rust and leaks. Some racks are not marked at all, others are marked only with the manufacturers symbol on the inside back between the 4 bolt holes. The most desirable racks are stamped with the can racks stock No. "42-B-22590" on the front outside portion of the rack, just to the side of where the gas can strap is anchored. "42" is the year it was standardized or accepted by the military. "B" is the first letter of the name of the item - in this case, Bracket. #GPW-1140330. Prior to adoption of the gas can rack, Jeeps left the factory with nothing mounted on the left rear. Manuals indicate that in June, 1943 the factory started mounting the brackets on the jeeps at the factory with MB serial number 165582. Because of it's usefulness in extending driving distance many earlier jeeps were retrofitted with a MWO or Modification Work Order.
            Photograph of 1941 Willys Slatgrill without gas can rack.
            Photograph of 1943 Ford GPW with gas can rack.
            Photograph showing "42-B#" stamped into gas can rack.
        Water Cans - See description & information below
    Covers, Headlight (2) - A pair of small OD green canvas headlight covers were issued to every jeep to be used in tactical situations where the reflection of the mirrored glass headlamps could give away your position.  The only type of NOS Headlight Covers I have found are the 4 flap with drawstring type. There is a round flat piece the size of the glass, with 4 ears with a channel sewn at each end. Inside the channel runs a drawstring. The Cover is placed over the glass of the headlight and the ears folded back over the metal headlight bucket and the string is then tightened up and a bow knot tied. Beachwood sells a 1pc headlight cover where there is only 1 ear that runs the entire circumference of the cover. It too has a drawstring (the last ones i saw had an incorrect plastic/nylon drawstring). I have found a similar, but noticeably smaller headlight cover of this type with a drawstring. When not in use, the Headlight Covers were folded up with the 1/2 Doors, Windshield Cover, and canvas Top, and suspended under the front passenger's seat frame on 2 pairs of straps with buckles hanging from 4 Footman Loops. If the Top, Windshield Cover and 1/2 Doors were installed on the jeep body tub, the Headlight Covers were probably just tossed in the glove box.
    Cover, Windshield - A large OD green canvas cover was issued to every jeep to be used in tactical situations where the reflection of the windshield glass could give away your position. The army and marines seldom used them in combat, although you can find several late war photos from the ETO showing them in use. Many times they were utilized as an extra storage place for personal belongings. The windshield cover consisted of 2 long pieces of OD canvas sewn together at the top and both sides. The bottom was left open to allow it to slide over the windshield. After the windshield was slid inside it, the bottom was closed with snaps. At the top, there were cutouts to allow the loops screwed to the top of the windshield to come through so the windshield could to be folded down and secured with the hood clamps. Occasionally a star was stenciled to the windshield cover since it covered the star painted on the hood when folded down.  The purpose of the windshield cover was to protect the glass from falling debris, and to stop the glass from acting like a mirror and reflecting sun/moon/star light to enemy observers thereby giving away your position. When not in use, the Windshield Cover was folded up with the 1/2 Doors and canvas Top and suspended under the front passenger's seat frame on 2 pairs of straps with buckles hanging from 4 Footman Loops.  The Windshield Cover is another item that is seldom seen today. Here is a photograph of a WW2 jeep Windshield Cover and Body Side Curtain 1/2 doors in place on a 1942 Ford Army Jeep.
    Curtain, Body Side, Ass'y L. H. (Canvas 1/2 Door) - #GPW-1120041 - See Below.
    Curtain, Body Side, Ass'y R. H. (Canvas 1/2 Door) - #GPW-1120040 - Army Jeeps came from the factory with canvas 1/2 doors. Each Door Curtain had 7 complex push button male snaps to attach it to the side of the body. The jeep body had 7 female receptacles pressed into it to receive the canvas 1/2 doors snaps.  Both male & female snaps are black oxide coated brass, spring loaded, and expensive to replace. It's not easy to find these items for sale, so be careful. These snaps are not the kind of snaps seen today. Both the snaps and the ½ doors were next to useless, and that is why you almost never see them in WW2 pictures. The canvas 1/2 Doors were to to either installed on the jeep body or secured under the passenger seat. When not in use, the 1/2 Doors were folded and suspended under the front passenger's seat frame on 2 pairs of straps with buckles hanging from 4 footman loops. Here is a photograph of WWII Military Jeep 1/2 Doors in use on another 1942 Ford GPW.
    Deck, Top, Ass'y (Canvas Top) - #GPW-1152700 - From the very first design on paper of what was to become known as a jeep, they have always had a canvas top. Original canvas military jeep tops are seldom seen for sale today. Canvas tops originally had information stenciled on them, but the stenciling is seldom seen today since most original canvas tops have ripped, torn, faded, shrunk over the years and been thrown away. Even the stenciling itself can fade away or be hidden by dirt and stains. Here is a picture of a typical stencil markings on a canvas jeep top. The standard issue Canvas Jeep Top was only a canvas roof and back wall. There were no sides. Full winter canvas enclosures were also produced on a very limited basis as special equipment. More info on them below. When not in use, the Tarpaulin (Top) was folded and along with the Body Side Curtain 1/2 doors, Windshield Cover, and Headlight Covers, was folded and suspended under the front passenger's seat frame on 2 pairs of straps with buckles hanging from 4 Footman Loops. There are several good suppliers of replacement Mil-Spec canvas tops for WW2 Jeeps. WeeBee Webbing, Surplus City, and Beachwood Canvas all make good quality tops. We will will have nothing to do with New Life Resources.
            Photograph of WWII Army jeep, a 1943 Ford GPW, with canvas top up.
            Photograph of 4 Footman Loops under the Army Jeep passenger seat.
            Photograph of (Navy) Jeep Top and Canvas items stored under the passenger seat, held by a pair of 2pc. straps.
        Top Windshield Frame Fasteners / Windshield Studs -  There is a lot of misinformation out there in the normal jeep channels about what windshield frame canvas fasteners were used on WWII jeeps. There are 3 types of fasteners used on old Willys military jeeps;    Top Bows and Top Bow Brackets -  The tops for the prototype jeeps, the Bantam BRC 40, Willys MA, and Ford GP (from 1940 to 1941) were supported by only one upright bow at the rear. The wind caused the top to flap and beat on the occupant's heads while driving. It proved to be unbearable, so they fixed that problem on the standard production Ford GPW and Willys MB jeeps (late 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945) by adding a 2nd pivoting support bow riveted the the main topbow. (After MB #3000, they raised the height of the windshield a few inches as well). The 2nd support bow was added to the main rear bow on a pivot a few inches up from the bottom of the main rear top bow tube. The pivot allowed the bow to pivot forward to support the top right behind the driver seat, or to fold flat for storage when the top was not in use. The standard production MB/GPW jeeps came with Top Bows that fit into 2 brackets (1 each L&R) that held them upright. The bows could be lowered by pulling them up and out ot the Rear Top Bow Bracket that had held them upright. They could then pivot on the Rear Top Bow Swivel Bracket and then slide forward into post-like Front Top Storage Bow Brackets that were bolted to the body. This allowed the Top Bows to double as long body side rails and many things were hung off of them on the side of the jeep by creative GI's. Bows and all brackets come either Willys Overland plain, or Ford "F" marked.
            Photo of gear hung off the top bows to the side of a jeep
    Kit, First Aid
        First Aid Kits
    MB/GPW Jeeps had First Aid Kits mounted on them. WWII First Aid Kits come in several types and in different styles, though not all are correct for a WWII Jeep. The type you want will have 4 flip-to-open clips - 2 on each long side. The ones you do not want is the one with 2 flip-to-open clips on one side and a long piano hinge on the other. The First Aid Kit was a 9" x 4 1/2" x 2 3/4" metal box with a flip open lid (dimensions are for box, not lid). On one end was a swing out wire handle for carrying. The First Aid Kits were not issued with the jeep by Willys or Ford. The US Army purchased them from several companies that produced first aid items prior to the war, such as Mine Safety Appliances, Richard Green & Co, and Halperin. The Army Medical Corps would issue the First Aid Kits once the jeeps were in service in the field assuring that the contents would be fresher. The standard kit was the "12-man unit". There appear to be at least two different standard First Aid Kits issued.
    Type #1 Type #2
    Stock No. 9-221-200 Item 9777300
    "US" emblem "U.S. Army Medical Department" emblem
    12-unit Kit Kit, First-Aid, Motor Vehicle  12 unit, Stock No 9777300
        Picture of Type #1 "US" 1st Aid Kit
        Picture of Type #2 "Medical Dept" 1st Aid Kit

    Both kits consisted of the following items (exact wording can vary)
    Item   Type #1   Type #2
    1 Bandage, Gauze, Field Brown, 4" x 6 yds. 2-003-080 9201510
    2 Bandage, Gauze, Compress, Field Brown, 4" x 4" 2-003-190 9200300
    3 Bandage, Gauze, Compress, Field Brown, 2" x 2" 2-003-075 9200500
    4 Bandage, Gauze, Adhesive, Field Brown, 1" x 3" 2-017-575 9200100
    5 Bandage, Triangular, Compressed, Olive Drab 2-011-755 9204100
    6 Burn Injury Set, Boric Acid Ointment, 1-335-800 9103800
    7 Burn Injury Set, Boric Acid Ointment, 1-335-800 9103800
    8 Eye Dressing Set, M-2 9-204-750 9109510
    9 Iodine Applicators (Swab Type) 1-235-060 9112200
    10 Ammonia Inhalants 1-060-875 9102500
    11 Tourniquet - Scissors - Forceps Set 9-597-500 9379700
    12 Safety Pins, Medium, Size 2 7-878-000 7878000
                Photo of Contents of a WWII Jeep 1st Aid Kit

    Another type of 1st Aid Kit issued to army jeeps and other military vehicles was the “For Gas Attack Only” kit. Another version of the wording is "For Gas Casualties Only". They were the same size metal boxes as a standard kit, but had different contents, wording and stock # stenciled on them. These Gas Attack Kits came in both Olive Drab paint with black or white stenciling, and a bright chrome yellow with black stenciling. The gas attack kits were issued in fewer numbers than the standard 1st aid kits. Usually 1 Gas First Aid Kit per 25 men.
               Photograph of Gas Attack 1st Aid Kit
        First Aid Kit Mounting Brackets - A first Aid Kit Mounting Bracket was designed and installed behind the dash between the speedometer and the glove box.  The only part visible from the front were the 4 screws that bolted it to the dash bard, and a small metal flip latch under the dash that released the 1st aid kit, dropping it into the waiting hands of the person wanting it. The earliest instance of a jeep with a mounting bracket installed that I have seen, had a Date of Delivery of April 1943. Although the 1st Aid Kit itself was not a factory supplied item, the 1st Aid Kit Bracket was installed at the factory by both Willys-Overland and Ford. Here is a picture of a WWII Army Jeep Dash with 1st Aid Kit Mounting Bracket installed. Note the 4 machine screw heads on dash face, and the bottom portion of bracket just visible below bottom of dash.
    Mask, Dust, M1 - It was common to have a M-1 Dust Mask / Respirator stored in the glove box of the WWII jeep. It was not a gas mask, and only filtered out dust and dirt particles stirred up by other vehicles in the convoy. Photograph of 1942 dated M-1 WWII Jeep Dust Mask.
    Nozzle, Flexible Tube, Fuel - Gas Can Spout / Nozzle / Filler Tube - Some early examples are known in solid brass (I have one). They are a screw in type. My guess is that they were for the flimseys or possible were Canadian or British. The standard WWII spout is a flexible spiral wound metal tube that is approx. 16 inches long and fitted with a very deep cone shaped screen filter that screws on the the end of the spout as a cap would (there is no cap however). The deeply V shaped filter screen catches rust & debris and allows more gas to flow before clogging compared to a civilian flat screen with less surface area. The screen unscrews for cleaning. The gas can spout is galvanized or lead or cadmium plated to resist rusting. It is mated to the gas can by a pressure exerted on a thick rubber donut seal that expands into the threads of the can when it is clamped down. It does NOT screw into the can.  I have yet to see a WWII NOS tagged 'screw in' military filler spout. The clamp curved handle was raised relaxing the clamping pressure on the rubber ring. The base was then inserted into the gas can's mouth and the clamp on the spout was then forced down. This action squishes the rubber donut into the threads on the can creating a tight seal. Some filler tubes had a long (as long at the flexible tube) approx. 3/8ths" thick rigid metal breather tube that was soldered on the bottom of the clamp mechanism.  This breather tube reached almost to the bottom of the gas can when used. (I had 3 dozen NOS tubes from 1943 with this breather tube). I believe these breather tube models to be an early variant. Some Spout Clamps are marked with a "US", others "USMC", while others have no markings at all. The gas can spout was used as a tool to open stuck and to tightly close the gas caps on a 5 gallon gascan. The nozzle was laid sideways on top of the cap with the flex tube engaged the raised ears on the can's cap.  It was quickly noticed that sometimes the ears were in a position where the filler tube could not be used to loosen a stuck cap with only 2 ears. Having 4 ears solved this problem. See Gas Can Caps above for more information
    Order, Lubrication Chart - A chart or map to every location on the jeep that needs preventative maintenance service in the form of one type of lubrication or another.  There were a few different formats of Lube Charts issued. At first Lubrication Charts were only found on the pages of the manuals. Next they were issued as a separate one sided manila colored card stock sheets. They evolved into a plastic coated, laminated glossy white thick cardboard double sided chart with crimped metal reinforced edges with the chart for the MBT jeep trailer on the reverse. The early flimsy Lube Charts were stored in the Glove Compartment, while the later, heavy duty charts were stored under the hood in a special bracket.
            Photograph of Original WWII MB/GPW (MBT Jeep Trailer on reverse side) Lubrication Chart.
            Photograph of Original WWII MBT (MB/GPW Jeep on obverse side) Lubrication Chart.
        Lubrication Order Chart Holders - The earliest holders were straps made by the GI's from old metal banding from shipping crates. They next evolution seems to have been a Ford Factory made set of 3 straps. Shortly, Both Willys and Ford were issuing a heavy metal sleeve holder that was folded and crimped along both long edges and one short edge. the final edge was left open so the Lubrication Chart could be slipped inside. The open end was also notched so that a person could get a grip on the Lube Chart and extract it. At the bottom were 2 drain holes and 2 small rubber snubbers that applied tension and kept the chart inside the holder. The Holder was them bolted to the underside of the hood on the driver's side.
            Photograph of empty Lube Chart Holder mounted to hood. Notice drain holes in lower corners and rubber snubbers on lower pan.
            Photograph of Late Lubrication Chart mounted in Lube Chart Holder under the hood of a WWII Willys MB Jeep.
            Photograph of Late Lubrication Chart mounted in Lube Chart Holder under the hood of a WWII Ford GPW Jeep.
    Rifle Scabbard, Leather - There were many types of leather Rifle Scabbards issued. Leather Scabbards were made in many different models. Each type of firearm required it's own special leather scabbard.  They were not a one-scabbard-fits-all arrangement. Individual leather scabbards were made for the following fire arms;

    1. M1 Carbine .30 cal Rifle
    2. M1 Garand .30 cal Rifle
    3. Thompson .45 cal Submachine Gun
    4. Springfield .30cal Rifle
    The scabbards were attached to the military vehicles by leather straps. They were hung from the vehicle as best they could, where ever space could be found. Favorite spots were hanging from both sides of the windshield frame, and hanging from the grab handles and Top Bow Brackets for the rear seat passenger's rifles. Most scabbards are dated.
            Photograph of Early Leather Rifle Scabbard mounted on WWII Jeep (hanging on rear view mirror arm, windshield frame, and behind shovel).
            Photograph of 2 WWII G503 Military Jeeps, both with Leather Rifle Scabbards.
    Rifle Rack, Universal - The Universal Rifle Rack was designed to replace the many types of leather Rifle Scabbards issued. The Universal Rifle Rack (#GPW-1153100) is a long metal bracket mounted to the inside of the lower windscreen on the windshield of a WW2 Military Jeep. The same rifle racks were also used on many, many other US army vehicles as well. The Univ. Rifle Rack was designed to hold several different rifles. It would hold the M-1 Garand, M1 Carbine, BAR / Browning Automatic Rifle, Thompson Sub Machine Gun, Grease Gun, and the Springfield and Enfield rifles.  There is a little loop that swivels down to allow the short barreled grease gun to be mounted.  The other rifles are held in place by a cam-locking arm with a rubber bumper.  The gun mounts upside down with the barrel pointing out the passenger side. The locking arm holds the barrel up. When the arm is moved out of the way, a spring pushed the gun downwards into the waiting hands of the GI. Photograph of a 45cal Thompson 'Tommy gun" machine gun with the 50 round drum mounted in a Universal Rifle Rack. Notice the rifle rack is mounted upside down in this photo. If it was mounted correctly, the 50 round drum would not fit because it would hit the jeep's dash. Photograph of Universal Rifle Rack mounted correctly with rifle installed. Notice cam arm holding gun barrel fore-grip up is rubber padded.
    The Universal Rifle Racks were also issued with zippered canvas covers (Part # WO-A-12721) to jeeps and other vehicles used farther back from the front lines. The canvas cover served to protect the gun from dust & rain. Photograph of WWII Ford GPW Jeep with empty Rifle Rack mounted to inside of windshield frame. The first mention of the Universal Rifle rack appears in October 1942 in Army Motors Vol. 3, pg. 205. Jeeps produced prior (and most likely for a time after) would not have the Universal Rifle Rack. The early jeeps were able to use the leather scabbards that were available for the different weapons. Field Modification kits were issued to add a Universal Rifle Rack to a jeep that originally came without one from the factory. Univ. Rifle Racks evolved over time. The earliest Rifle Racks (version 1) did not have the swivel loop for the Grease Gun, nor did they have the metal reinforcement straps stapled to the bracket to hold the canvas cover on. The metal swivel loop for the grease gun barrel (version 2) appears to have been added rather quickly as very few of the Univ. Rifle Racks come without it. The next change was adding the zippered canvas cover (version 3) which was held in place by two long strips of metal that were placed on top of the canvas along the backbone of the Univ. Rifle Rack and stapled through all 3 layers. There was also a Field Mod kit for the canvas cover.  You can tell a field mod canvas cover from a factory canvas cover by whether the metal strips are held in place by staples (factory) or by 2 small sheet metal screws (field modification) on each strip. I have examples of all types in my collection.
    My best estimate re: time frames.
    prior to late 1942 - - Leather scabbards only
    4th Quarter 1942 - Version 1 - no swivel, no canvas cover
    2nd Quarter 1943 - Version 2 - swivel, no canvas cover
    4th Quarter 1944 - Version 3 - swivel, canvas cover
    Here is a photo of a late style WWII Jeep Windshield Frame with the welded on brackets that the Universal Rifle Rack bolted to.
    Early jeeps were not issued with Rifle Racks, so their windshield inner sheet metal pan did not have the mounting brackets welded to them. They used Leather Rifle Scabbards instead.
    Shovel, General Purpose, D Handle, Round Point (Pioneer Tool) - #41-S-3170 - Strapped to driver's side of Willys and Ford Jeeps. At least 2 dozen different manufacturers made them for the US Government in 4 types. Shovels were very often swapped, lost or broken and replaced. The shovel spoon goes into a curved bracket bolted to the driver's side of the jeep with the spoon to the front, handle to the rear. A #2 spade is called for in the jeep manual, but several #3 spades will fit as well. The handle is secured to the side of the jeep by 2 canvas straps that buckle together. Shovels were usually painted completely OD, but some photos, and NOS handle assemblies show only the metal being painted OD green with the wood left a clear to yellow varnish covered color. Based on studying many photos over many years, the follow patterns have emerged;
    Pre-War -  Very Early Prototype Jeeps GP, MA, BRC-40 Extra Wide/Fat Wooden 'D' Handle. No Brackets provided on jeep.
    Very Early -  Early  Willys Slatgrill Cast Iron Handle. Shorter overall length than other shovels.
    Very Early -  Early  Ford GPW Very narrow neck where spoon turns into handle slot. Welded. Made of thicker metal than most shovels
    Early -  Late  Willys MB & Ford GPW Back is covered and reinforced with a "V" metal plate. Considered the standard WWII shovel. Many Mfg.'s.
    Late -  Post War Willys MB & Ford GPW Back is open and not reinforced with a "V" metal plate. Many Mfg.'s of this type.
            Photograph of Pre-War - Very Early Prototype Jeep GP, MA, BRC-40, Slatgrill, Script Ford, Scout Car Type Shovel (All Wood Fat D handle)
            Photograph of Very Early - Early Willys Slatgrill Type Shovel (photo taken on early GPW)
            Photograph of Very Early - Early Ford GPW Type Shovel (again with the incorrect 'extra' shovel footman loop)
            Photograph of Early - Late Willys MB and Ford GPW Standard WWII Type Shovel
            Photograph of Late - Post War Willys MB and Ford GPW Type Shovel
        Shovel Strap Footman Loops - The early slatgrill shovel is the reason that there are 2 different mounting positions for the forward footman loop that the shovel straps attach to. The cast handle slatgrill shovel was 2 inches shorter than the rest of the shovels. Since these shovels were in the supply system from the beginning it was logical to assume that they could eventually find themselves issued to every year and model jeep just by luck of the draw and swapping.  The jeep designers anticipated this and adjusted for it by adding 2 extra mounting holes (threaded and with a backing plate) forward of the normal position.  Many novice jeep restorers mistakenly add a 4th footman loop since it fits the holes in the body there. In reality, there should only be 3 footman loops with the unused ones filled with small round head machine screws. The forward footman loop's mounting position would be dictated by whether or not you have the short shovel or the long standard one. This way it didn't matter what shovel was picked up along the way, the jeep could be made to be able to fit it.
            Photograph showing incorrect 4 footman loops. Notice the forward position should be filled only with a machine screw.
            Photograph showing correct 3 footman loops. Notice the forward position is filled only with a machine screw.
        Shovel Straps - The longer of the 2 fabric straps is attached to the front footman loop. Wrap front strap, through shovel handle, over grip, run strap back between grip and side of jeep body, through front footman loop (from rear to front), back up through shovel handle and over shovel hand grip, and into the buckle of the 2nd - shorter- rear shovel strap which is attached to the rear footman loop.  This applies pressure on the shovel forcing it both forward and in towards the jeep body tub.
    Photograph showing correct running of ax and shovel straps.
    Spare, Tire, Wheel, & Tube - Just the standard issue 6:00x16 NDT Spare Tire & Combat Rim* mounted at the rear of the jeep. *Slatgrill MB's and Script GPW's, Early Willys & Bantam Trailers, and prototype jeeps came with solid rims not combat rims.
        Spare Tire Bracket - 2 type exist, Early 3 Stud and Late 2 Stud. Both types come in both willys plain or "F" Ford marked. The bracket bolts to the right rear body panel with 4 bolts. The Early 3 Stud type has 3 studs which go through 3 lug nut holes in the spare tire. The Late 2 Stud type (#GPW-1433-B) has 2 closely set studs that go through the larger center (Wheel Hub) hole. The 2 stud type requires a round Disc or Plate (#GPW-1420) as a backing plate to secure the Rim to the jeep. The rim is sandwiched between the disc and bracket. Picture of Late WWII Jeep Spare Tire Disc in use.
        Spare Tire Foot - #GPW-1418 - A Lower bracket was added to help support the weight of the spare tire. Without it, the weight and inertia from the spare tire assembly had been ripping and deforming the rear panel when bouncing along. The Spare Tire Foot consisted of a cup shape dish that conformed to the bottom of the spare tire, welded to the cup was a brace that bolted to the jeep with 2 bolts. One bolt to the rear cross member, the other through the real body panel.
    Spare Tire Lock - A Lock  assembly where the housing went over the special Spare Tire Locking Lug Nut and when the H-700 Key was turned either retracted or extended a detent pin into a beveled groove cut into the Spare Tire Locking Lug Nut. This beveled groove ran around the outside diameter of the lug nut. This groove caught a detent pin in the Spare Tire Lock and even though locked, it allowed the lock to spin freely without loosening up the lug nut, thereby deterring theft of the spare tire.
        Spare Tire Lock Lug Nut - A special lugnut, one per jeep. This Lug nut was taller than the standard lug nut and had a beveled groove running around the outside diameter of the lug nut. This groove caught a detent pin in the Spare Tire Lock and allowed the lock to spin freely without loosening up the lug nut, thereby deterring theft of the spare tire.
    * Cover, Mirror - A small canvas pouch with a snap that slips over the mirror head to cover it. They were to be used in tactical situations where the reflection of the dark mirrored glass could give away your position. NOS Covers are found with non-G503 markings, but I have yet to see one with a G-503 tag. A cool accessory for your military jeep none the less. When not in use, the Black Out Mirror Cover was folded up with the 1/2 Doors, Headlight Covers, Windshield Cover, and canvas Top, and suspended under the front passenger's seat frame on 2 pairs of straps with buckles hanging from 4 Footman Loops. If the Top, Windshield Cover and 1/2 Doors were installed on the jeep body tub, the Black Out Mirror Cover was probably just tossed in the glove box.
    * Lock, Pad, Brass (2) - According to All American Wonder (2 per MB/GPW, see AAW1 pg. 28) jeeps were commonly equipped in the field with 2 brass "US" padlocks. Jeeps in the wild, and old photos seem to bear this out. the padlocks were used to prevent theft of the jeep vehicle. A eyebolt was bolted to the dashboard at the location where it was very close to the Transmission gear shift lever when it was engaged in reverse gear. The Padlock would go around the shift lever and through the eyebolt. The jeep could not be taken out of reverse gear when locked, thereby deterring theft of the vehicle. The 2nd Padlock was to to secure the gas tank cap. A hasp was welded to the Gas Cap, and the hinge was welded to the Driver's Seat Pan.  The padlock would lock the two halves together preventing theft of gasoline by siphoning. Storage: Installed or in Glove Box.

    Special Issue Equipment & Accessories

    Anti-Decapitation Device
    It was a nasty fact of war that sometimes the enemy forces would string a thin wire across a roadway that Allied Jeeps traveled on. This steel tension wire provided a static way to lop off the heads of drivers & passengers who couldn't see it (night time, dust, fatigue, etc.), and even if they could see it, stopping in time was seldom accomplished. The GI's answer to this booby trap threat was the Anti-Decapitation Device, which was a field made angle iron assembly bolted or welded to the front bumper. There were usually 2 support braces that angled back to either side of the frame rails. At the top it was angled forward to catch & hold the wire and usually a notch was cut and sharpened as well to aid in catching wires and cutting them. Here is a picture of a Anti-Decapitation Device mounted on a WW2 Ford GPW Jeep made in 1942.

    No one comes close to the firepower of the LRDG and SAS is seen in this Pic.  These jeeps were always overloaded with supplies & equipment. Here is another Photograph of a SAS jeep from WWII.
    LRDG = Long Range Desert Group.  SAS = Special Air Service.  Both are 'special forces' type units of the British Army.

      M-48 Dash Mount
          Machine Guns were sometimes mounted to the passenger side dash board. This dash board mounting assembly was called the M-48 Dash Mount. Usually the gun mounted on the M48 was the M-1919 .30cal air-cooled machine gun, or a 30 caliber BAR Automatic Rifle.

      Pedestal Mounts
           Another mount was the Pedestal Mount in the center of the jeep. From the very beginning of the MB/GPW jeeps, the jeep companies included a special cross member under every jeep with a round support plate in the center of the jeep. It's purpose was to anchor a Machine Gun Pedestal. Photo of WWII Jeep Machine Gun Crossmember. There are 3 main versions of WWII Jeep Pedestals that can be found.

      1. M25 Pedestal Mounts: The very earliest version, the M25 Mount, came about when the rear pedestal mount from a armored scout car was removed and installed on a jeep. These pedestals have a square bolt pattern on a round base, and have 3 very tall reinforcements welded most of the way up the tube. These reinforcements are not legs. Legs are different. These were just a brace from the tube to the small flat plate the tube was welded to.
      2.  M31 Pedestal Mounts: The next pedestal to evolve is commonly referred to as the M-31 Pedestal Mount (although the army had different and strange way of classifying mounts).  This mount was also an early mount.  It was a tall tube without legs or tall reinforcements. It normally came with a 'Traveling Arm" to hold the gun facing forward when traveling with it in an out of use state.  Here is an original photograph of a real early M-31 without a traveling arm mounted on an early slatgrill Willys Jeep.  It is shown with a M-1917 Water-cool .30 cal MG and cradle. A traveling arm is not needed with a cradle.
      3. M31-C Pedestal Mounts: The last type is commonly referred to as the M-31-C Pedestal Mount. This mount featured 3 long legs that stretched out to act as braces welded 1/2 way up the tube. The braces were needed when they started mounting the .50cal machine guns because the larger caliber guns had a lot more kick back.  The non-legged versions allowed far too much sway to maintain any accuracy.  The legs helped, but jeep firepower was not about accuracy, it was intended more as suppressing fire while ground infantry could flank the enemy position.
      4. Re: Jeep Pedestal Machine Gun Mounts:
        This is one area -- in fact, it might be the only area, where I say to heck with the "It just rolled out of the factory door on the Date of Delivery" 100% restoration.  What I mean is this; usually I say get the correct early parts for early jeeps and late war parts for late war jeeps. But in the case of Machine Gun Mounts - I STRONGLY urge everyone to get an M31-C regardless of your jeep's year of manufacture. I have talked just about everyone who ever called asking about Machine Gun Mounts - out of the M31 & M48 & M25 mounts. It isn't about authenticity, it is about safety. I don't like seeing MB & GPW's with Roll Bars. It gives me the willies.  However, the M31C jeep pedestal mount might be the next best thing to a roll bar, AND it looks authentic because it is. I was at the Patterson MVCC Jeep Rally (now moved to Big Bear) the year the steering linkage broke on the WWII jeep as they paraded over the pass towards San Jose. The jeep flipped 7 times on the way down the mountainside. The passengers flew out on the 1st roll over, but the driver was pinned between seat & steering wheel. He rode it all the way to the bottom with 7 flips. His gun, windshield, hood & fenders were all really banged up or destroyed. He was helicopter'd out to the hospital for a couple months stay. His M31C was slightly bent. Fire, police & MVPA'rs all agreed the M31C saved his life by acting like a pogo stick. The M31C was bent and it had 3 legs. I believe a MG mount with no legs would have folded over. I only ride around in jeeps with M31C's pedastals and all the legs bolted in. You never know when some idiot might T-bone you, or that 60 year old steering linkage part might break. I would only put M-25 or M-31 in on a "for show" only jeep, or swap it out once at the display.
        PS. The M48 is a cool mount at first glance, but about impossible to obtain anymore. And yes, you do ruin a perfectly good glovebox door installing one. :(
        And canvas top up with the gun pointed straight up? Nope, too tall. - Brian
      5. Other Machine Gun Mounts: There were instances at home & abroad in the active theaters, when machine guns were mounted on the outside of WWII jeeps. I am sure this type of mount was tested at the various proving grounds stateside, but it was never accepted and produced as an ‘approved’ machine gun mount.

      6. In combat theaters, all sorts of things were being done to jeeps. Whether by a motor pool guy who wanted to toy around with an idea, or because an officer with the rank to back his request up said, “This is what I want. Make it happen.”
        Photographs show that there were several jeeps being used with the gun mount outside the jeep. Some photos shows the following; A cut off M31 pedestal, or pedestal from some other donor vehicle, had the base cut off of it. The tube was then shortened, and then welded to the passenger step footrest. The needed metal plate reinforcement would have to be performed for the step to support the weight of the pedestal, the gun, and the cradle, and ammunition.  The problem is that it all needs to be welded to the frame, but from a mechanical point of view you don’t want the body & the frames connected.  There are rubber or other material shims / spacers between the jeep frame & the jeep body. This cuts down on the vibration and allows flexing and removal of the body tub when needed.  Once the pedestal is welded to the step, and the supports are welded to the frame & the body, there goes the required separation of the body & frame.
        From a Marksman’s point of view, it wasn’t that good an idea either. You don’t want your gun hanging out in right field. You want it where you can aim it quickly without thinking about it. A machine gunner would want to have his gun in front of him, so he can sight down the barrel, even if he isn’t actually using the built in gun sights.
        Jeeps like this were usually seen being used by cavalry and reconnaissance groups, where the life expectancy of a jeep was short, so no one cared about vibration damage.  The only thing that mattered was firepower. The more the better. Some troops modified their jeeps with field made armor plate.  Here is a good photo of a typical 'armored jeep'.
    Headlight Guards
    An accessory that was developed early on (slatgrill) and the mounting holes were continued to be punched until the end of production.  The guards themselves were seldom used and are a rare accessory.  Original photos show them mounted on Canadian jeeps, UK jeeps, and Jeeps assigned to Mountain warfare / cold climate groups.  Photograph of headlight guards installed on Willys Slatgrill MB.

    Hull Compasses
    A small compass manufactured by the Hull Company was used on several of the US Military Vehicles in WWII.  The Hull compass was the most frequently seen compass on a WW2 Jeep. Few jeeps were actually had compasses in WWII, but collectors love to add neat and rare accessories to their restored jeeps.
    There are several subtypes of the Hull compass.
        There are 3 types of mounting brackets possible.
                1. Suction Cup/Round pad with 2 screw holes.
                2. Windshield Clip clamp type
                3. Screw on mount with rubber shock absorbing arm.
        There are 3 Colors possible.
                1. Black
                    A. Bakelite (plastic),
                    B. Rubber
                2. Brown Bakelite,
                3. OD (olive drab) paint over plastic.

        There are at least 2 body molds used as seen by different Body Markings.
        There are different versions of marking types/fonts used on the center spinning N-S indicator.

    The Hull compass is filled with a fluid to dampen the spinning & vibration. CAUTION: do not refill your compass with water – it can rust! The fluid is actually kerosene.

    The Windshield Clip Clamp mount is a jaw like assembly that is made from bent sheet metal. The clamp has 2 jaws that clamp and hold onto the center or side pillar of the inner windshield frame of a MB or GPW when tightened. The jaws pivot on a round potmetal ball with a (straight or curved) metal rod coming out of it. The rod inserts into the back of the hull compass and is held in place by a setscrew.

    The Suction Cup style consists of a flat round metal disc with a metal rod coming out of center of the disk. The rod inserts into the back of the hull compass and is held in place by a setscrew. The metal disc has 2 holes punched in it that will allow it to be attached to the body of the jeep with sheet metal screws.  This mount also has a black rubber pad the covers the metal disc and is a suction cup, allowing the compass to be mounted directly to the windshield glass.  This rubber pad is usually missing or the rubber is rotted to the point where I can’t be used any longer.

    The Screw on Rubber Shock mount consists of a metal rod that inserts into the back of the hull compass and is held in place by a setscrew. The other end of the rod is surrounded by rubber, which is then attached to a stamped sheet metal bracket.  The rubber acts as a shock absorber to cushion the compass from vibrations. The sheet metal bracket has a screw hole so it may be secured to the jeep body with a sheet metal screw.

    My best estimate on the chronology of the color/composition types is as follows.
    Black Rubber from mid – late 1930’s.
    Brown Bakelite from end of 1930’s to early World War Two.
    Black Bakelite Late (1944?) to post war years.
    OD paint is hard to put a date on. It has been presented as both a mid war (1943?) and a post war application.

    The Late Mold, Black Bakelite, Rubber Shock Screw on mount, where the face has many demarcations between the points of the compass is the most commonly used WWII Jeep Hull compass assembly.

    Hull compasses were and still are rare accessories for a WWII Willys MB or Ford GPW jeep.

    Longer body Hull compasses with an internal light bulb, metal shield over the light bulb, and external wires to power the light bulb were produced for the post war civilian market.  These are not military models, and I have never seen any evidence they were ever used on a military vehicle.

    Red Lights
    Red lights are rarely seen on WWII Jeeps.  The only known use for one would be a MP (Military Police, Shore Patrol) jeep.  I suppose a General might also be able to get away with running a red light on his jeep as well - I'd love to see an original photo of one though before I state it as fact.  Below are photos where you can see the following: Red MP Light, License Plate, Wood Winter Top, shop made fender mud extensions. These 2 original photographs of late WWII MP jeeps with lots of field modifications were taken right after Germany's surrender as US occupation forces moved in.
            Photograph #1 shows the MP jeeps in a city square and you can make out the Red Lights and Siren on the passenger side fender.
            Photograph #2 is a close up of one of the MP jeeps with the hood open and you can see that the "MP" was painted by hand on the Red Light's glass lens.
            Picture of Red Light substituted for Black Out Drive Light on 1945 Shore Patrol Jeep.
            Picture of Red Light substituted for Black Out Drive Light on 1945 Shore Patrol Jeep, Side View.

    Siren were commonly used on vehicles assigned to Armored Units, Military Police Units, Road Patrol & Repair Units, Generals Grade Officers, and Ambulances. Original photo of small siren on WreckerOriginal photo of small siren on a Half Track. They come in several designs and both 6volt & 12volt. One common feature seems to be the "V" for victory design on the front grills of several of the different brands. The most common is the smaller "Federal" type siren mounted on the passenger fender. These had a cast pot metal front grill. The 2nd most commonly seen are the medium sized sirens.  These have a stamped & punched "V" front grill made of either steel or brass. They were usually seen mounted to the front frame horn behind the bumper. This is because the windshield hit them when folded down due to their increased height over the small sirens.  Even so, you can find many examples of the medium and even the large bullet sirens mounted on top of the fender. The 3rd and seldom seen are the large sirens. These are more often seen on the very large trucks and not the jeep. However, General Eisenhower had a Large Bullet siren on this ww2 jeep as can bee seen in this photo. (The General is shown getting his dinner hot off the engine block of his jeep. Gen. Eisenhower recommended heating Rations on the top of the a jeep's engine block. This was practiced by many soldiers in wartime).  A visitor recently wrote me this

    "Regarding sirens on jeeps- In 1947 & 48 at Vienna Austria I was the enlisted section chief and senior driver for LtG Geoffery Keyes. We had 3 Jeeps, 3 Cadallics (one of which was a 1942 Model 75 Limo with a large silver siren on the left fender), and a 3/4 ton weapons carrier. One Jeep (bumper marking CG-1) had two of those very large 10 ton wrecker sirens (one on each front fender) with the large red lens on the front of each siren.  The Jeep was 6 volts and the sirens worked, but not to full volume. We inherited these vehicles from Gen. Clark when he was transferred to the 6th Army at ZI.  Gen. Keyes never used the sirens, Gen. Clark always did."
    Bob Furey, formerly Staff Sgt. Commanding Generals Section, Headquarters, United States Forces in Austria.  Thanks for writing Bob!
    There are 2 type of siren legs; 1) the "base" type, 2) the "pedestal" type.   The "base" type is hollow and the wires drop down through the base where they either go into a hole in the fender, or you drill an exit hole into the base and run the wires along the top of the fender.  The "pedestal" type uses the same mounting holes, but now the wires drop out of the bottom of the bullet shell all by themselves, and from there they run to wherever you direct them to go - into a hole or along the top of the fender.  With both types, there are going to be 2 mounting holes, and usually a third hole for the wires. The difference being that the 'base' wire hole is between the 2 mounting holes, and the 'pedestal' wire hole is usually located behind the 2 mounting holes (just like the B/O Drive Light).
        Photograph of Small type "Federal" jeep siren mounted on jeep passenger fender.
        Closer Picture of Small type "Federal" jeep siren mounted on jeep.
        Closer Picture of Small type "Federal" jeep siren mounted on jeep, Front View.
        Photo of small Siren mounted on driver's fender behind Black Out Drive Light.
        Photo of Siren and Red Light on WWII Navy Shore Patrol Jeep.
        Photo of field modified B/O Lite Guard modified to protect small Siren.
        Photograph of Medium type jeep siren mounted on jeep passenger frame horn.

    Surge Tanks
    Surge Tanks are radiator overflow reservoirs.  They were made of metal and bolted to the front grill of the jeep and other vehicles. The radiator overflow spill tube usually dumped to the ground beneath the jeep.  In hot climes where water was scarce, they didn't want the water to be wasted, so a rubber hose (turning into a metal tube and back again into rubber hose) was connected at one end to the radiator overflow tube, and the other end to a small canister mounted to the grill.  This canister collected the steam & water vapor and allowed it to cool back into water droplets which collected in the canister.  Later, when the engine cooled, the water would be sucked back through the tube into the engine radiator.  These canister were used in the US Desert Training Camps as well as in combat in North Africa, Mediterranean theater, and eventually, because they were never removed, can be seen on jeeps in the ETO.  They were also used in the Pacific campaign. They are sometimes seen used along with the T-1 Air Compressor, and/or the Oversize Flotation Tire MWO (Modification Work Order) kit.
    Two versions of Surge Tanks exist. The British SAS type, and the US Willys factory model.
        British SAS Surge Tanks
    SAS surge tanks were different than US surge tanks. If you spend some time looking, many WWII photos you find will bear this out.
    SAS tanks are much larger and seem to be always dented. It appears that they are always dented because they were made out of thin metal and had no shield to protect them.
        US Willys Factory Surge Tanks.
    Willys tanks are smaller, look better (appropriately sized for the size of the grill), and they came with a shield plate in front of them to protect them.
    I had several NOS ones in the kits back in the mid 1980's.  Then I had some repro tanks around '93.
    The kit consisted of;
        Surge Tank Canister, w/ backing plates & Radiator Cap;
        Surge Tank Shield, #A-11176 - a heavier metal front shield to protect the thin overflow tank;
        Surge Tank Tube, #A-6945 - the metal tube the vapor traveled through;
        Misc. Small parts; Hose clamps, 2 pieces of rubber hose, washers, nuts, & bolts.
            Photograph of one of my NOS WWII Willys Factory Surge Tanks installed on a 1942 Ford GPW in Switzerland.

    Tow Hooks
    Used on Marine Corps Jeeps. Also sometimes seen on jeeps with capstan winch kits installed, although tow hooks were not part of the capstan winch kit. WWII tow hooks are curved like a rams horn. There is a left and a right. The right curves to the right and mounts on the right frame horn, and vice versa.

    There were 3 vintages of the trailer design that is commonly referred to as the Jeep Trailer. There were also other models (K-38, Converto Dump) towed by jeeps.

    1) The WWII MBT made by Willys, and the T3 built by Bantam.
    2) The Korean War vintage M-100.
    3) The Vietnam War era M-416.
    For more information and photographs go to The 1/4-ton Jeep Trailer page.

    Water Can & Bracket
    The 5 gallon water can, #64-C-281, sat in the same type of bracket (#GPW-1140330  #41-B-22590) that the 5gal gas / jerry can sat in. Some jeeps carried water cans in the rear gas can bracket requiring no modification. This meant that they could not carry the extra 5 gallons of gas though.  The standard modification was to mount a 2nd can rack bracket on the passenger side step, with the step providing addition support from below.  There was also an experimental bracket that mounted to the rear of the jeep in place of the rear gas can bracket. this experimental bracket was "T" shaped with the long leg sticking out behind the jeep. 2 water / gas can racks would then sandwich the "T" leg between them, allowing 2 cans to be mounted in the place of 1.
            Photo of WWII Jeep 5 Gallon Water Can Field Modification, Standard

    Water Can
    The best way to tell the water can, WW2 Fed. Stock #64-C-281, from the gas can is by the mouth & lid. The water can has a big 3 1/2 inch diameter mouth with a quick closing, cam type cap. The Gas Can has a screw-in cap. Gas cans have a "G" stamped on both wide sides in the top middle, while water cans (usually) have a "W" stamped in the metal right under the 3 handles on the top of the can. (Some water cans do exist with a "W" in the same location as the "G" on gas cans). The area under the handles is also where the majority of water cans are dated. (Gas cans are usually dated on the bottom of the can). Why did they make the two cans so much alike? Because the same tooling & dies used for making the gas can could be used to make the water can, saving time, money and critical materials. White paint was sometimes applied to water cans to help keep it from being mixed with gasoline cans. Sometimes the "W" was painted white, other times the whole "X" indentation was painted.
    The water can was used for more than just water. It was also used to carry all kinds of liquid refreshments: soup, lemonade, stew, coffee. Early water cans were designed with added features to make serving liquids easier - in theory anyway. The early 5 gallon water cans had a concave, not flat, lid with a knock-out plug. A spigot or tap could be installed by removing this plug. To help make the dispensing of liquids easier from the water can, a small plug was located in the center of the concave cap (or on the can body on the end opposite the cap) that could be knocked out and a spring type spigot inserted making it possible to serve water, coffee, lemonade, etc. by turning the can on its side and pressing the spigot button. Early in World War II, in 1942 (1941 as well?), in order for the liquid to pour from the spigot easier, on some cans there was a little, air intake valve in the can to let in atmospheric pressure. The water can produced by Nesco had a brass air pressure relief valve located between the handles near the crown of the can opposite the cap. The little plug would unscrew (only so far - it won’t go far, it’s stuck on so you wouldn't lose it) and a little hole through the threads would be revealed. This hole leads down through the plug into the can and allowed air in to replace the flowing liquid as it was drained.
    The wide mouth made it easy to clean the water can. It was wide enough to insert an arm down through the wide mouth and swish soapy water around. The water can also had a baked on synthetic lining which was not affected by chemicals in foods.
    The 5 gallon water can is not a piece of vehicle equipment that every vehicle got.

    Winterization Kits
    #WKT100 (Willys-Overland Winterization Field Kit).  Winter canvas grill covers, and hood blankets were produced late in the war in limited quantities. Small kerosene, gas stove heaters were also produced in very limited quantity. Full canvas Top enclosure assemblies were produced in much larger quantity than the other Winterizing kits, and even they were in short supply. Here is a photograph of a full canvas winter enclosure on a 1941 Willys Slatgrill jeep. Hard tops were made in the field from whatever materials were at hand. The war produced all sorts of interesting scrap materials to build jeep tops from, including tops made of wood, steel, aircraft aluminum, and even clear plastic airplane bubble canopies. Here is a photograph of a field made WWII Jeep Hard Top. All hard tops were for the most part one-of-a-kind. There was probably an instance or two of some field unit constructing a dozen similar units, but I don’t have any writen records, instructions, or diagrams, just a few photos showing a few hard tops of similar design & construction.


    FORD FACTORY PHOTO - Ford GP Assembly Line Photograph
    - Ford GP Assembly Line Photograph -
    Factory Installed FORD Fire Extinguisher in Jeep
    <click photo to zoom in>

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    Thanks to:
    Mike in Iowa, Dan Parmley Jr, and Luther Hanson of the QM Museum for info on the FSN for WWII Gas & Water cans.

    coming soon!

    Slave Battery Outlet Receptacle - #A-11792 - located on the outside of the angular panel on the inside of the right front fender.
    "Tool Box, Mechanic's, Army, ""US 1943"" marked, WWII, Rare, VG+, 1@"
    Troubleshooting Light, w/ B.O. Hood, WWII Vehicle, NOS RARE, 1@
    Valve Spring Compressor, MB/GPW, see photo 1944 TM9-1803A pg.17
    "Pick Mattock, NOS ""USA True Temper"" Vehicle Pioneer Kit"  Mattocks, Handled, Pick 5 lbs. #41-M-720
    "Pickhead, Vehicle, jeep front bumper, NOS,  1x "1941"
    Flag pole holders
    license plates
    bridge plates
    Camo net
    Pitcher, Folding, Radiator Water
    Canteen Hanger Strap, Vehicle/Mounted, M-1941
    Hull Compass Did you know?... the fluid is kerosene. They are found in 3 colors; Black or Brown Bakelite, and Painted OD. There are also 2 different mold patterns, Early, and Late. There are 3 types of mounts; Stud, Ball/Clamp, & Pivot. See AAW#2 p212
    Hull M4  Jeep Compass Instruction sheet, WWII jeeps etc.
    Hull M4 Compass, Black, Early, Pivot, VG++, WWII, needs cleaning,  complete,  1@
    Hull M4 Compass, Black, Late, Ball/Clamp, EXC/NOS, complete, 1@
    Hull M4 Compass, Black, Late, Stud, NOS in WWII ORD box,  1@
    Hull M4 Compass, Brown, Early, Pivot, VG++, WWII, needs cleaning,  complete in box,  1@
    Hull M4 Compass, Brown, Late, Ball, missing clamp, VG, WWII, 1@
    Hull M4 Compass, Brown, Late, Ball/Clamp, EXC/NOS, complete, 1@
    Hull M4 Compass, Brown, Late, Stud, EXC,  complete,  1@
    Defroster Kit, in metal box, NOS WWII 6v "1942", stores under rear seat
    Paint, SPECIAL GAS DETECTING, orig. "US Chemical Warfare Dept 1942", for jeep hood star surround.
    Rain Trough/Gutter, under hood, #A-100 keeps water off block
    Red Light/Siren Switch, Push/Pull w/lock, on-off
    Slave Cable Receptacle, NOS WWII, MB/GPW,#A-1792, AAW2,pg191

    Spare Tire Foot, X-LG Special DESERT MWO-G503-W9, NOS
    T-1 Air Comp. Info, MWO's, Manuals, Blueprints, many Veh. 32pgs
    T-1 Air Compressor Engine Mounting Bracket, MB/GPW, Upper, R, 1@
    T-1 Air Compressor Hose w/wingnut, NOS WWII, MB/GPW,   1@
    T-1 Air Compressor, DESERT MWO-G503-W9, NOS WWII MB/GPW
    Tandem Tow Bar Data Plate Alum. , Brass
    Tandem Tow Bar Mounting Kit, NOS, mounts Std. bumper & towbar
    Tandem Tow Bar Special Reinforcement Pintle-hook Plate, NOS, 2@
    Tandem Tow Bar Wood Grill Block, w/ 2 footman loops & 2 straps, 2@
    Tandem Tow Bar, ORIG WWII MB/GPW, used, VG+ Willys Part #A-7927   #8-H-1826
    "Tow Rope, Manila Hemp, 1"", stores on Frt. Bumper, correct length w/loops at both ends, 4@"
    "Tow Rope, Manila Hemp, 1"", stores on Pass. Fender, NOS, 100ft for"
    Water Fording Kit, Late USMC type, most major parts, used 1@
    Capstan winch

    valve stem protectors
    spark plug raincaps
    taillight rubber grommets