History of the Jeep, both the word and the vehicle - how it got it's name

Please, encyclopedia editors, book authors, and others, stop supplying mis-information. 'GP' DOES NOT stand for General Purpose when talking about jeeps. There are GP (general purpose) tents, but there WERE NOT any 'general purpose' jeeps.
'GP' really stood for... G= 'Government'     P= '80 inch wheelbase'.
'G' was used by Ford to differentiate between vehicles produced for the Government and for civilian use. (A= Passenger car, B= Bus, C= Commercial vehicle, etc.).
Letters where used at Ford to differentiate between different models with different horsepower ratings, wheelbase measurement, etc.  'P' just happened to land at the "80 inch" spot, which is the wheelbase of a jeep.

I have posted a scan of the page from the very rare 1941 Ford booklet "Service School for US Army Instructors on Ford US Army Vehicles (1941)" showing very clearly that all Ford "G" prefixes stood for "Government" and "P" means "80 inch wheelbase reconnaissance car". "W" stands for "Willys" since they were the designers of the original blueprints of the MA, on which the MB / GPW jeeps were based.           ~  courtesy of Ray Cowdery - used with his permission

"America's only real sports car"
     Enzo Ferrari commenting on the Jeep
"The Jeep, the Dakota and the Landing Craft were the three tools that won the war"
     Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower
"[The] equipment...among the most vital to our success in Africa and Europe were
the bulldozer, the jeep, the 2 1/2 ton truck, and the C-47 airplane.
Curiously enough, none of these is designed for combat." 
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower
"Paved Roads - just another example of useless government spending"
Warn Winch advertisement showing a Jeep being driven on a canyon floor in the fading afternoon sunlight
"God created asphalt so yuppies can go four-wheeling"
posted on willys jeep newsgroup
Hummer H2 and H3, The vehicle screams "Look at me - I'm a total poser"!
While the H2/H3 driver yells "Can you pull me out with your Jeep?"
 "Real Jeeps have Round Headlights"
The anti-YJ Wrangler movement

Lots More Jeep History Below:

How did it get to be called a jeep anyway?
There were several things called by the name jeep before there existed a 1/4 ton 4x4 by that name. Where the word jeep was originated and was first spoken doesn't hold much interest to me.  My efforts are focused only on my interest; how did my favorite vehicle get its name?  Sure it was called a peep, or a pygmy, quad, Bantam, and others by some at it's birth, but in short order it TOOK the name 'Jeep' away from everything else that was using it. There is only one vehicle that comes to mind when you say the name Jeep. There are not many things that can be referenced to universally with just one word, a quick list I can think of would be; Kleenex, Xerox, (the) Pope, Hitler (Adolf sure ruined that family name, didn't he). Notice 'Coke' and 'Madonna' didn't make the list since there are 2 of each.

Today's editors rely on the previous work of other editors.  Once the legend was conjured up, and someone put it in print everyone after that keeps quoting the same old incorrect sources. (I think it was Wells in 1946 in his 'Hail to the Jeep' book, but I would have to go dig out my copy to be sure).

The reference I quote (and show a scanned photograph) is from a very rare Ford document.  It was not published for the public. It was not published for ‘internal use’ by everyone at the Ford Company. It was from an instruction manual for training army instructors, specifically, the Motor Pool, Driving, and Parts Dept. servicemen. By the way, jeep procurement was the responsibility of the Quartermaster Corps 1940-1942 and then the Ordnance Department 1943-1945.  There were very few service instructors needed. The Army trained thousands of men to be pilots and infantrymen... but very few how to fly a blimp, or to instruct others on Ford jeeps.  A lot more infantrymen and pilots needed replacing (due to death & injury) than jeep instructors. The manual is titled "Service School for US Army Instructors on Ford US Army Vehicles (1941)". This copy belongs to Ray Cowdery, author of 2 books on the WWII jeeps. Ray Cowdery has been restoring WWII jeeps for many decades. When I first met him in the early 80's, he had already attained jeep guru status.

Well we just saw that GP stands for Government 80 inch Wheelbase Reconnaissance Car.
GPW is Government 80 inch Wheelbase Reconnaissance Car Willys (design).
See very early Ford GPW Jeep cutaway diagram. (How do I know it is very early? By the slatgrill style air cleaner).
1/2 of the Army jeeps produced for the war were Ford GP's & GPW's.
Right on the dashboard - right in the face of the driver & passenger are the Data Plates.
And on that data plate in bold letters is "Make and Model - Ford GP".
Later the GPW's were issued, and they came with glove boxes, again right in the face of driver & passenger and again clearly marked "Model - Ford GPW"
Close up of 1942 Ford GPW Glove Box Data Plates. (Early QMC 3 Data Plates set).
Photograph of 1945 WWII Ford GPW Jeep Dashboard. (Late ORD 4 Data Plate set).
Photograph of WWII GPW Jeep Dash Data Plates from distance.

Every Jeep was issued with manuals.
In 1941, 1942, 1943 there were 2 manuals issued.
The Parts List and the Maintenance Manual. They were published by the respective vehicle manufacturer.
These were stored in a zippered pocket of the lower drivers seat cushion in 1941, and into early 1942. After that they were stored in the glove box (which Ford invented). In big bold letters on the cover of both manuals would be "Part List" or "Maintenance Manual" followed by "Truck, 1/4ton 4x4. Model FORD GPW"

In 1944 & 1945 the Government took over issuing the manuals.
They issued 6 manuals for the WWII jeep.
3 repair manuals tackled different repairs (Engine, Power Train, Body & General Maintenance).
3 parts manuals were also issued. The Ordnance Dept.'s G503 Standard Nomenclature List (SNL G-503 Ord 7, Ord 8, Ord 9).
The Ord 7 Parts List was short and carried with the jeep - it only listed things that would be replaced by a driver i.e. gas cap, light bulb, headlights, wiper blades, etc.
The Ord 8 was issued to motor pools at front line areas. It listed items (read assy's) that could be repaired at the front line units with basic automotive repair tools.  For example water pumps and starter motor, but it would not list windings, impeller shafts, etc. as at the front, if the motor went bad, they would drop in a whole new motor rather than try to rebuild it in the weeds.
The last was the Ord 9, it was the Master Parts list that the rear echelon units used (who would rebuild water pumps, engines etc.).
All 6 of the manuals issued (3x Ord parts & the 3 repair maintenance) would again be issued with "Model GPW" (also Willys MB) boldly written on the cover and inside pages.

GI's were issued military drivers licenses, (and you had to be qualified or ‘rated’ to drive each type or weight class of vehicle), after studying and completing drivers training course. (I have these manuals as well). In class, vehicles were referred to by their official terminology, CCKW's, DUKW's, WC's, GPW's, etc.
Drivers licenses were issued in types, depending on what types of vehicles you were qualified to operate. The ratings were; A= Amphibious, M= Motorcycle, T= Tracked vehicle, and W = Wheeled vehicle. Photograph of World War Two Amphibious, Motorcycle, Tracked vehicle, and Wheeled Vehicle (Jeep and other) Driver qualification badges.

Please take a look at my website’s guest book and message boards. Many vets have written there that during W.W.II, there existed a definite bias on coveting GPW's over MB's. The perceived notion was based on the belief that Ford GPW's were built better than the Willys GPW. (I own both, I don't care for one over the other - I love them both). So it seems the most requested jeep at checkout time from the motor pool was the GPW- they requested it by name!!

So, in a nutshell, before you got behind the wheel of one, you had to be taught to refer to it in army school jargon ~ a Ford GP.
Based on the scuttlebutt on durability, you asked for the stronger "GP" by name when checking one out from the motor pool.
Then as you drove it around, the "GP" on the data plate on the dashboard stared you in the face for every foot of the miles you drove the Ford GP.
When there was a mechanical problem, you had to go into the glove box for the manuals, where you were again presented its model name "GP" in bold face type.
Upon returning it to the motor pool or bivouac area, you had to fill out the paperwork explaining why the GP was missing it’s side view mirror, or gas cap etc.
Guess who had to fill out the paperwork requisitioning a replacement?  Not the Sgt., he's got more stripes than you do.  You got to fill out the form, and you had to look up the part # in your GP's Ord 7 or TM, and there you would find that the rear view mirror you broke when you hit that tree branch was listed as part#  "GP-17723-A   at a cost of .65 cents"        Reference ‘TM-10-1348 Change #1 April 10 1942 Ford Parts List’

Yes, early prototypes were called the quad, the pygmy, the peep, but when the production Ford GP's were released with GP stamped right in your face, they soon stopped calling the 1/2 ton dodges 'jeeps'. And the rest is history.  The Ford built amphibious jeeps or GPA's were called "Seeps" by the way (see below for more info on them).

When the vehicle is called in writing a GP, and you’re taught that name in class getting your driver’s license, and there, stamped on the ID Nameplate on the vehicle itself, is the name, and when you say it’s name, GP, out loud in a normal cadence, it's a "jeepy".
Yes, Eugene the jeep from Popeye is a cute character, and both he and the vehicle can do just about everything, well WWII Jeeps can do almost anything (WW2 USMC special "Front Line Ambulance" Jeep buried in mud), but if you dig any deeper than the folklore, it's pretty obvious how the 1/4ton War Baby got it’s name.  :)     How the other things prior to 1940 got to be called jeep I do not know.


How Many U.S. Companies Built Army Jeeps in WWII?
  1. Willys Overland MA, MB JEEP - Willys Scout Car
  2. Ford GP & GPW JEEP
  3. The story of the BANTAM BRC JEEP and how the standard WW2 jeep really came into being
  4. The Checker Cab Co. BRC Prototype JEEPS  (4 known) (Checker Cab Co Jeep Photo #1) , (Checker Jeep Photo #2)
  5. The Chevrolet JEEP Prototypes (2 known)

GPA Amphibious Jeeps built by Ford
Ford built Amphibious GPA's, 'SEEPS', based on the WWII Jeep. (Follow the link above to it's own webpage)

"Follow Me" Army Jeeps of the AAF
The Army Air Force employed Jeeps painted bright Yellow and/or in a Yellow & Black checkerboard pattern at air bases.   (Follow the link above to it's own webpage)

Willys MBT and Bantam T-3 Jeep 1/4-ton Trailers (K38, Converto Airborne Dump, M-100, & M416 too)
Is it military or civilian? WWII MBT, or Korean War M-100, or Vietnam era M-416? How to locate Jeep Trailer Serial Numbers.   (Follow the link above to it's own webpage)

One Method of Military Jeep Disposal After World War Two
At the end of the war, were jeeps just abandoned?   (Follow the link above to it's own webpage)

Army Surplus Jeep in a Crate for $50?
Can you really get a Military Jeep Brand New in a Crate, packed in grease / cosmoline? Read here for details on the Jeeps in a Crate: the TUPs and SUPs.

What exactly is "Cosmolene" anyway?
Read here the details on Jeep parts and other WWII Army Navy Surplus parts packed in Cosmoline.

What was it like buying Army Surplus and Military Vehicles ~ Looking Back
What was it like buying Army Surplus Vehicles and parts 20-30 years ago?  It was better  ;-)
Click here for photos & details on what it used to be like at Army / Navy Surplus Stores and Military Vehicle Truck Parts Dealers' Warehouses.

Where can I buy a WW2 Jeep? Do you have a WWII Jeep for sale?
Your best bet is looking in the Recycler, Thrifty Nickel, Truck Trader type classified ads.
Even eBay is a good source. Here are 2 links for eBay WWII jeeps for sale.   eBay Jeep Search #1     eBay Jeep Search #2
Also, definitely put up a FREE WANT AD on my website Bulletin Boards.
Several vehicles have traded hands over the years this way.
That link is http://wwiijeepparts.com/WWIIJeepForums.html
Make sure you leave your contact info, what years are you looking for, and a price range.
Also, check the ARCHIVES section of my web site. All the ads on the Bulletin Board Forum get archived. Since the Message Boards drop the posts after 60 days, the archives will have all the Jeep For Sale ads that are over 60 days old. They are most often still good ads, since many people do not want to drive farther than 150 miles to look at a jeep.
Also make sure you get your hands on the books 'All American Wonder' Vol. 1 & Vol. 2 by Ray Cowdery. They are the restorer's bible.
They are like an encyclopedia set, you HAVE to get both.
I do not normally have jeeps for sale. I am strictly a parts supplier. The jeeps I have I plan on keeping.
Good hunting.

How can I tell a Military Jeep Engine from a Civilian Engine?
The quickest way to tell the difference between a civilian engine block and a military engine block I have found is the water pump boss on the block.
First what are the dimensions of the machined boss ABOVE the water pump? Are there any #'s stamped there?
If it looks like the boss is about 2" across then it is probably a WWII military block. (Many times it has a single letter stamped on it)

WWII Military: flat spot is about 1/2" x 2" across. See #3 in this Photo of a WWII Military Block.
Civilian: flat spot is about 1/2" x 4" across.

This long flat spot is also where they usually stamped the engine serial # on civilian motors.
This is the sure fire way to tell it is a WWII block even when #'s are ground off.

Military Engine Blocks: The engine serial number was located on the top front passenger side of the engine block behind the oil filter on a machined boss. See previous question Re: Locating Serial Numbers for Photos.
Civilian Engine Blocks: The engine serial number was located at the front of the engine block on the water pump boss.

Cast Numbers on engine;
Engine block #638632 is the correct number for a MB engine block.
The assembly date (month, day, and year of production) can be found stamped on the pan surface at rear main bearing cap.
Cylinder head #639660 would be the head number for a MB engine.
It appears that WILLYS in raised letters was added to cylinder heads in mid 1943, and JEEP was added in mid 1944.
At engine # MB288835 the cylinder head bolts/cap screws were changed to studs and nuts.

The Go Devil 134.2 Jeep Engine
The power and torque of the L-Head engine is one of the main reasons why Willys won the contract with the War Department beating out the Bantam BRC40 and the Ford GP. The Willys GO Devil engine out-performed the engines used in the Ford and Bantam prototype jeeps. The L-Head engines uses a cast iron block and cylinder head with 3 main bearings and mechanical lifters. The engine is called an L-Head is because the valves for the intake and exhaust are in the block. (Most engines have the valves in the head). This design gave Willys the advantage of having a relatively lower profile than other engines. Part of the War Dept.'s specifications called for the vehicle to have a low silhouette to avoid detection by the enemy. The "Go Devil" engine earned its fame in the WWII ARMY MB. The L-Head continued to be used by Willys Overland in the post World War Two jeeps: CJ-2A, Willys Wagon, Willys Pickup, CJ-3A, M38, and DJ-3A The MB used a Carter W-O carburetor, while the civilian models used the Carter YF carb. They are very similar to each other.  The military engines used a roughly cast crankshaft, (since it's official life expectancy in combat was only 3 months, why expend the extra time, materials, and machining), while post war engines had nicely balanced crankshafts with bolt on counter weights. The performance specifications are slightly different between civilian and military motors presumably due to carburetor, crankshafts, and compression differences between the engines. The L-Head used in 1945-1950 CJ-2A's and the 1949-1950 CJ-3A's are rated the same

The Jeep Drive Train
The MA, MB, and GPW used the L-head 134.2 cubic inch Inline 4 cylinder "Go Devil" engine, T-84 3 Speed manual transmission, Dana 18 two speed transfer case, Dana 25 front axle, and Dana 23-2 rear axle turning 6:00 x 16 tube tires mounted on 16 inch rims. Firing order is the same as the engine size. 1-3-4-2.

What is the shifting pattern for the WWII Jeep? My data plate is missing.
See original transmission, transfercase shift patterns and operating speeds in this photo of WWII Jeep glove box data plates.

So you bought your first jeep and want to restore it. Now what?
Well congratulations on getting your first Army Jeep!
I'll bet you are eager to get started on it right away.  Being excited to start your new, fun project is great!  But before you start dilling new holes or welding old holes closed or tossing odd-ball parts away, do your homework first!
Jumping into a new project with both feet is admirable because it shows commitment, but remember things do not always go as planned.

The first and most important thing you can do - I mean it - (it will save you time, and lots of money by not buying the wrong parts) is get the 2 books "ALL American Wonder Vol. #1 & Vol. #2."
You need both because they are like an encyclopedia - A-M, N-Z, there is no overlap.
Then lock yourself in a room for 5 hours and read them cover-to-cover a couple of times.
When done - you'll know just about as much as I know. It is the restorer’s bible.
The books are available on ebay, amazon.com and many other places at about $23 each.
It’s the best $$ you can spend. When I was starting out 19 years ago I must of spent several $100 buying the wrong stuff - that was before the books came out. LOL
Reading all the pages on Jeep History, and Tools, and the Archives on my web site should help you and keep you busy as well.
Check the “what's new” page on my web site. It hosts a record of every addition and update I make to the web site.

Where to start spending $$? Well keep in mind that everyday trade schools graduate mechanics and bodymen. You can always get your jeep repaired. Getting parts? Well that's another story. The jeep parts are not always going to be available. I say get the parts 1st, repair it later.

Help! Calif. DMV wants me to pay back fees on the jeep I just bought!
"The Jeep I just bought hasn't been registered in Calif. for several years, and DMV wants me to pay 8 years of fees, plus an additional penalty fee."
All car & jeep collectors should read this information regarding DMV fees
A little publicized fact is that in California, car collectors are EXEMPT from having to pay back registration fees and non-op fees. To qualify for a waiver, go to your DMV office and you will need to fill out a 'Statement of Facts' form. On it, state that there was a reason for non-reg/late reg., (ex 1. you were unable to locate parts to restore car/keep the car running, but have now located the parts, ex 2. the previous owner was unable to locate parts to keep it running and you have just purchased the vehicle to restore it ), and you are exempt because you are a car collector. The lower level window clerk might say 'no', but ask for a supervisor. I learned about this in the newsletter from the antique jeep club I belong to. I have used it to save fee's on about 9 occasions with my jeeps & trailers.
This applies to your own jeeps which you are late on, as well as new purchases where the previous owner was delinquent.
Happy Restoring - Brian

SPECIAL LAWS for Titling and Registering your MV!
Several states have granted historical military vehicle owners special privileges regarding titling and registering their MV as both an antique and military vehicle.

Colorado: The Colorado Historic Military Vehicle License Plate Bill is now law. On 8/11/10 the new law took effect . The legislation deletes the requirement for historic military vehicles to display state issued license plates and allows for the vehicles to utilize unit and organizational bumper registration numbers and markings as they did in active service. Military Vehicle owners may now remove their license plates and legally drive without them.  Insurance requirements, titling, and registration rules have not changed. Under the new Bill, owners of Military Vehicles must keep their license plates in the vehicle and show them to a law enforcement officer if requested along with their valid/current registration and proof of insurance. It is strongly recommend that collectors/owners of a Military Vehicle print out the two documents below and keep them in their Military Vehicle.  The Fiscal Note document in particular will provide good information to the law enforcement officer if you are ever pulled over for not having plates.  Many law enforcement officers will not be aware of this new law.
Please print out the following sections (PDF files) and keep them in your vehicle!!
Sections 42-1-102 and 42-3-202.

Indiana: Information Maintained by the Office of Code Revision Indiana Legislative Services Agency 03/26/2002 01:19:37 PM EST  IC 9-18-14
Chapter 14. Military Vehicle Registration  IC 9-18-14-1
    Sec. 1. A person who owns a military vehicle may register the military vehicle under this chapter instead of registering for a license plate issued for:
                (1) a vehicle under IC 9-18-2; or
                (2) an antique motor vehicle under IC 9-18-12.
                            As added by P.L.2-1991, SEC.6.   IC 9-18-14-2
    Sec. 2. If a person who owns a military vehicle registers the military vehicle under this chapter, the registration of the military vehicle is for the life of the military vehicle.
                            As added by P.L.2-1991, SEC.6.   IC 9-18-14-3
    Sec. 3. If a person who owns a military vehicle registers the military vehicle under this chapter the:
                (1) bureau shall not issue a license plate for the military vehicle;
                (2) bureau shall authorize as a registration number the military vehicle identification number stenciled on the military vehicle in white or yellow letters and numbers in accordance with all pertinent military regulations.
                            As added by P.L.2-1991, SEC.6.  IC 9-18-14-4
    Sec. 4. The bureau shall adopt a:
                (1) registration form; and
                (2) certificate of registration;
                to implement this chapter.  As added by P.L.2-1991, SEC.6.  IC 9-18-14-5
    Sec. 5. The bureau shall adopt rules under IC 4-22-2 to implement this chapter.  As added by P.L.2-1991, SEC.6.

Illinois: Other people inform me that Illinois has similar special registration laws.

Louisiana has a special titling law for antique military vehicles whereby the military vehicle numbers stenciled on the vehicle become the license "plate" for purposes of putting the vehicle on the road. Louisiana Law states that the DMV must provide special license plates for antique vehicles, street rods, and military vehicles.  One provision of this statute provides that the military vehicle identification number stenciled on the vehicle can be used in lieu of one of these specialized license plates. One "military vehicle identification number" is the unique number assigned to the vehicle by the military, (also called the ‘USA Number’), which is typically stenciled on both sides of the hood). The USA number is assigned when the vehicle is received from the manufacturer, and stays with the truck throughout it's military service (or at least it is supposed to - vehicles were often stolen from other units and the USA numbers quickly changed by repainting them). Another possibly unique military vehicle number are the military vehicle numbers stenciled on the front & rear bumpers of the vehicle. These bumper 'Unit Numbers' are also used by the military to specifically identify each vehicle (by unit and number). The military uses the USA number as the unique vehicle ID, regardless of what unit it is assigned to. The bumper 'Unit' numbers are assigned by the unit the vehicle is assigned to. This means that during the military service life of the vehicle it could have several different 'unit' numbers as the vehicle is passed from unit to unit, or if the vehicles parade line up position is changed at the discretion of the unit commander.
The text of the specific Louisiana law is below:
C. In lieu of the license plates provided in Subsections A and B of this Section, the secretary shall authorize the use of the military vehicle identification number stenciled on the vehicle in white or yellow letters and numbers in accordance with military regulations.

Registering your vehicle in Louisiana requires a physical inspection of the vehicle by a state trooper prior to obtaining title and registration. Paying a $25 fee for the title and registration. Other pluses; it never expires: and you only have to pay a $3 fee to transfer it to the new owner of the vehicle if you sell it.

Oklahoma Statutes as Section 1136.2 of Title 47, unless there is created a duplication in numbering, reads as follows:
A. Except as provided in this section, former military vehicles shall be exempt from the provisions of the Oklahoma Vehicle License Act if:
1. The former military vehicle is used only for exhibitions, club activities, parades, and other functions of public interest and will not be used for regular transportation; and
2. The owner of the former military vehicle files with the Oklahoma tax Commission or a motor license agent a sworn affidavit, signed by the owner, stating that the vehicle is a former military vehicle and will be used solely for the purposes listed in paragraph 1 of this subsection.
B. Upon each former military vehicle, the annual license fee shall be Twenty Dollars ($20.00). Upon initial registration, the owner shall make application for the flat license fee which application shall include the year of manufacture and a description of the vehicle containing information as

C. A former military vehicle shall not be required to display a license plate if current proof of registration for the vehicle, in a form prescribed by the Commission, is carried in the vehicle. In addition, the vehicle shall display in a prominent location on the vehicle a registration mark prescribed by the Commission. The Commission shall allow the use of a unique identification mark similar to the mark assigned that vehicle by the branch of the armed forces in which the vehicle was used. If such a mark is not used, the Commission shall designate a registration mark consisting of numbers, letters, or numbers and letters in combination at least two (2) inches in height. To the extent possible, the location and design of the registration mark shall conform to the official military design and markings of the vehicle.

D. A certificate if title shall be issued for a former military vehicle, and the applicable fees for the issuance of a certificate of title as provided pursuant to the Oklahoma Vehicle License and Registration Act shall apply.

E. All penalties pursuant to the Oklahoma Vehicle License and Registration Act relating to the failure to register a vehicle shall apply to this section if the former military vehicle is not properly registered or is used in a manner which violates the provisions of paragraph 1 or 2 of subsection A of this section.

F. As used in this section, "former military vehicle" means a vehicle which has been, but no longer is, used by the armed forces of a national government and which displays markings indicating it was a military vehicle.

It looks like the Oklahoma law was patterned after the Texas law, and became effective a year or two after the Texas law.

Texas has a similar that allows the hood registration numbers to be used in lieu of a license plate. In Texas, you can register your MV as a 'Former Military Vehicle', and as such, you don't need a license plate, inspection sticker, or registration sticker. Texas law provides for issuance of a metal registration plate, or the owner of  the 'Historic Military Vehicle' can submit to the DMV, pending approval, a "military style" number to be painted on the hood or other location as would be correct (2" characters required). A photo of the vehicle with the desired number painted on the vehicle is to be submitted prior to registration approval. The Texas DMV might ask you to utilize the last 5 or 6 digits of the vehicles VIN in the number you choose to paint on. They may also ask you to stamp the chosen number into the bumpers as a more permanent form of ID.  This Hood or Bumper number becomes the 'tag' number of the vehicle. For example: The last 6 digits of the hood number are the official 'plate' for registration & identification purposes.
Texas DMV may also give you a small 2x2" metal tag, to be carried in the MV at all times, but does not need to be attached to the vehicle.
502.275 Requirement to display registration.
    502.275k says a former military vehicle operated on a public highway is not required to display license plates or registration if proof of current registration for the vehicle in the form prescribed by the department is carried in the vehicle and the vehicle displays in a prominent location of the vehicle a registration mark prescribed by the department.
    502.275l says the department shall allow the use of a unique identification mark on a former military vehicle that is similar to the mark assigned by the armed forces in which the vehicle was used. If such a mark is not used, the department shall designate a registration mark for the vehicle. A registration mark designated by the department must consist of numbers or letters or both numbers and letters that are at least two inches high.
    502.275m says to the extent possible the location and design of a registration mark for a former military vehicle registered under this section must conform to the vehicle's official military design and markings. In this section, "former military vehicle" means a vehicle including a trailer, regardless of the vehicle's size, weight, or year of manufacture that was manufactured for use in any country's military forces and is maintained to accurately represent its military design and markings.

In addition, in Texas, "former military vehicles" are exempt from vehicle emission testing, and can be exempted from the required liability insurance laws in the State.
The Texas law became effective September 1, 1995 thanks to owners of Historic Military Vehicles who wrote the law, then found sponsorship in the legislature, and with a few minor changes got the law passed.

So if you live in TX, LA, OK, IN, or IL, be sure to research what special options are available to you. If you don’t live in one of those states, write your congressmen, governor and state DMV office and tell them you want what automobile collecting Americans in other states have.

Insurance Issues for Military Vehicles
Iinsurance companies can be very bureaucratic. They don't have catagories for MV's and don't understand why anyone would want one. If it doesn't fit nicely into their predetermind vahicle catagories, they they usually don't want anything to do with it.  All they see is risk. When dealing with a big insurance company, talk in generalities. Don't use specific M-series numbers, they won't be on their books. Call a truck a 'pick up'. MB, GPW, M38 probablly won't come up either, so try 'Jeep Universal', or 'Open Body'. The less detailed you are, the less leary they will get. Also, I wouldn't mention the matching Trailer, Machine Gun Mount, Capstan Winch, Red MP light & Siren or other assorted 'unusual' accesories. Insure the trailer as a separate entity later. Leave out the Rubicon run, the swimming voyage in the DUKW, and the re-enactment battles your participate in. Keep it simple, but honest. An insurance company can refuse to pay you after a crash if they can show that you lied on your application. Don't lie, but don't run and tell them every little detail either.
If you won't be using your Jeep for everyday driving, you can save a lot of money and hassel by getting Antique Automobile Insurance. It goes well with your Antique Vehicle Registration. Both have restrictions, but both can save you money.  Usually the use of your vehicle must be limited to club events, displays, and/or parades or other low-mileage events. You must also qualify by age of the vehicle.Usually it is only open to vehicles 25 years old or older.
Here are some companies that specialize in antique vehicle insurance;
J.C. Taylor Antique Auto Insurance Agency Inc., 320 S. 69th Street, Upper Darby, PA 19082.  1-800-345-8290 http://jctaylor.com/
Hagerty Insurance Brokerage, Traverse City, Michigan.   1-616-947-6868   &   1-800-922-4050   http://www.hagerty.com/
Tri-State Insurance Company. 1 Roundwind Road, Luverne, MN 56156-0500.  1-800-603-3330  http://www.tsicollectorcar.com  (CO IA IL IN KS MN MO ND NE OH SD WI)
Click Here for a list of UK insurance brokers who will work with UK Military Vehicle owners.

The Jeep is driveable - What can I do with it?
Owning a restored Army Jeep or other Military Vehicle allows you to get involved in many social activities such as;
Parades, Air Shows, Museum Events, Re-enactments, Tributes, Veterans Groups, Jeep Camp Outs, Road Rallies, Cruise Nights, Historic Districts / Old Towne Days, Military Base Open Houses, Antique Car Clubs, 4x4 Clubs. It's Fun for the whole family. Check out the Customer Photos page for good examples of the fun awaiting you.

World War Two Jeep Driving Safety Issues
Since our military vehicles, jeeps included, don't drive anywhere near the flow of traffic on today’s highways, we are in danger from other driver's who aren't living up to their legal responsibility of paying attention while driving. There are a few things we can do to increase our chances of arriving safely at our destination.
  • Increase rear lighting.

  • We can sure use better rear tailights. We don’t, and should not have to ruin our factory restored jeeps by throwing away the original blackout lights or drilling into the jeeps metal to bolt on a horrible aftermarket tail, turn signal, or marker light. We can however still make use of the added safety of having bigger, brighter and more lights on our vehicles.

    Utilize some ingenuity on your own and using a 2x4 piece of wood, or some PVC sprinkler tubing, or metal plate, or combinations thereof fabricate a separate lighting set up for the rear,  or both front & rear of your vehicle.  Use modern civilian lights affixed to your assembly. Mount them permanently to your bracket assembly contraption. Have the contraption itself be a temporary thing. Make it so it lays or quickly attaches to the vehicle using wing nuts & bolts, or uses clamps of some type (C clamps, vise grips, etc.).

    Some 'light and clamp assemblies' you modify could attach directly to the vehicles bumpettes or tailgate.
    For electrical power – quick and fast – make the additional lights get their power from the jeep’s trailer socket. Most MV's have a trailer plug, so use it. Buy a spare WWII trailer socket (or other M-series type that matches your post war MV) and have all the additional lights’ wiring terminate there.
    Now when you are traveling you will have bright and safe lighting. When you get to a show take them off and you are back to original WWII factory configuration.

  • Safety Placards and Triangles

  • Towing your restored WW2 jeep
    I see many, many WWII jeeps towed behind motorhomes. If it were me, I would...
    1) Make sure I had non-original front locking hubs.
    2) Tie off both transmission AND transfer case cases in Neutral
    3) Tie off steering wheel with about 2 inches of play
    5) Back the jeep onto the dolly and tow it backwards.
    This way the only moving parts on the jeep are the front tires, front wheels & hubs, and front wheel bearings. The more moving parts, the more wear & tear.

    Locking hubs, while not original, keep the wheel rotation from turning anything else other than the wheel bearings. Without the locking/unlocking hubs, the front axleshafts will turn – more wear & tear – and this in turn causes the front driveshaft and parts inside the transfercase to turn and to churn the gear oil, more heat and wear & tear then needed.

    Not tying off the transmission & transfer case levers is needed because they could vibrate or bounce back into gear, resulting in wear, tear, friction, and heat.

    Not tying up the steering wheel will allow the vehicle to wander and possible lock up with the wheels maxed out in one corner direction resulting in dragging and scuffing tires horribly.

    Windshields should ALWAYS be folded flat when towed any distance. The wind gusts will bend and warp the windshield frame. Even a little bit of bend in the lower windshield arm will result in the top of the windshield frame being moved inches back from where it is designed to be. If your windshield isn’t where the factory spec’s say it should be, your canvas jeep top won’t fit. Be very careful about bending your windshield frame.

    If you don’t put the jeep on the dolly backwards, then it is pointless to install the locking hubs. If you are going to tow it face forwards (on a dolly), then you really should crawl under jeep and drop the rear driveshaft AT THE REAR DIFFERENTIAL.
    Another way is to remove both rear axles shafts, and cap the openings, so that dirt and water doesn't get inside.

    Flat towing the jeep behind a motorhome, is less desirable, locking hubs at the front, and a dropped rear driveshaft (or removed & capped rear axleshafts) are required.

    Another area of concern should be damage to paint. Bugs, road debris, rock chips, squashed bottles & cans, and other bits on the roadway all can get kicked up by the towing vehicle and impact on your jeeps paint. Some people wrap the forward facing part of their jeep in a tarp. This idea sounds good, but I see more damage from the wind buffeting the tarp and wearing down the paint like sandpaper scrubbing the paint. Wrap the section of jeep with a soft clean blanket, and then tarping the jeep should help prevent a lot of that if done correctly. The best solution is to make a plywood shield that mounts just in front of the jeep to deflect the bad stuff.

    Where can I look up where my military jeep was used in WWII?
    One of the most commonly asked questions I get from new WWII Jeep owners is "Where can I look up where my military jeep was stationed though out WWII?"
    The answer is: "No, there isn't. Sorry".  No records were kept by the military on vehicle movements based on vehicle serial #’s, nor the hood registration #'s.  Some military jeeps can be found to have unit #'s still legible under the many layers of paint on the front bumpers or rear bumperettes.  A military unit’s history can be traced this way, and it can be inferred that the jeep went along with the unit. One collector / restorer actually found a ship’s USS name stenciled on the windshield, and after contacting the veterans group for that ship, found a few sailors who remember having that jeep lashed down on the deck. One vet even sent a photo of the ship and the jeep can be seen on the deck in the photograph (It’s a 1950's picture though).  It’s a 1 in a 10,000 occurrence to find anything relating to the average jeep though.

    Although you can't determine where you Jeep was actually used in WWII, many people desire to portray their jeep having been at a certain place or in a certain battle. If you research what Divisions were in what battle, you can use the folowing charts to determine what associated units were attached to that Division.  This will help you layout the bumper marking scheme for your restored jeep.

    Infantry Divisions
    Armored Divisions
    Airborne Divisions
    1st Cavalry Division

    Where do I find my WW2 Jeeps Serial Numbers?
    All MB's and GPW's had serial #'s in 3 places.  See Also The Jeep Serial Number Archive Webpage.
    What are WWII Army Jeep Hood Registration Numbers?
    WWII Military jeeps had Registration Numbers also commonly called hood numbers assigned to them.  On Military Vehicles these numbers took the place of and performed the same function as license plates do on civilian vehicles. They are a unique identifier of the vehicles owned by the various US Military branches. How were these numbers assigned?  Hood Registration Numbers were assigned by the U.S. military accounting/procurement dept.  The military got an authorization to purchase a specific number of jeeps, say 40,000 jeeps for example, so in the contract the military assigned a block of 40,000 numbers to the vehicles produced under that contract. Willys or Ford was then given the contract, and the jeeps were stenciled with a hood number as they rolled out the door at the end of the assembly line at the factory.  So it was all specified in the contract that they would have an assigned block of numbers, but there isn't a perfect correlation between the hood number & the serial number because the numbers did not go hand-in-hand. For example the jeeps might have been parked left to right in numerical order, but the men doing the hood registration number painting might have painted jeeps from the front jeep to the jeep behind it progressing till they reached the last jeep in a column, then they would move to the next row and start painting towards the front. This would have an end result of numbers being assigned randomly, but it close proximity to their serial numbers.  This allows for estimations of a jeeps hood number and vice versa for a jeeps serial number when one is known. It's close, but not exact. The only thing for sure is that all Army Jeep hood numbers start with a "20" followed by 6 digits (exception below). The "20" indicates it's weight/model classification as a quarter-ton jeep (G-503 1/4 ton Reconnaissance Vehicle). The USN (and USMC through the US Navy Dept.) purchased jeeps under their own US Navy contracts. These US Navy contracts did not follow the same "20" + 6 digit (8 digits total) hood numbering system that the US Army used on their Jeeps. The "Exception" being that the Very Early Production Jeeps had a "W" prefix - for War Department - and a 7 digit registration number. This still resulted in 8 characters being used, and the first digits were still "20". Sometimes you will see an "S" stenciled / painted near the hood registration number. The "S" is supposed to be on the cowl of the jeep, but many times someone was sloppy in where it got applied. The "S" stands for "SHIELDED", meaning the jeep or other vehicle had been produced with electrical noise reducing ground bond straps, capacitors, and other items to make it generate less static electrical noise pops and whistles that would interfere with radio transmissions.  It meant that the jeep was ok to be outfitted with a radio or to operate the jeep next to other radio equipped vehicles.

    Where & How do I find Hood Registration Numbers on WW2 Jeeps?
    All MB's and GPW's had serial #'s in 2 places - on both Driver & Passenger side of the Hood. On Very Early Production jeeps, the Registration number was also found on the rear body panel, where the gas can goes on later jeeps.  When I go looking for Hood Registration #s, I use a propane torch and a small wire brush (toothbrush size). These items are the best I know of to help in locating the Jeep & Trailer Registration (Hood) Numbers because there is usually some grease, rust, dirt, and several layers of old paint to deal with. Hit the area with the torch until the top layer of paint starts to develop paint bubbles.  Then scrub with the brush. WARNING: The hot melted paint can flick and land all over you, so wear old clothes and eye protection!! Re-apply the heat and scrub till you remove the civilian paint layers.  The Factory OD & White/Blue Drab Numbers are usually very well applied to the paint and with care most if not all of the overcoats of paint on the jeep will flake or peel off revealing most if not all of the Hood Registration Number.

    Can you estimate my WWII Army Jeep's Hood Registration Numbers?
    Yes, for jeeps where we know what the registration #'s were that were assigned to the contracts we can estimate what it MIGHT be. This link will take you to The WWII Jeep Hood Registration Number Generator that will estimate an approximate Hood Registration Number for most World War Two Jeeps including the Willys MA, Willys MB, Ford GP, Ford GPW, Bantam BRC-40 model jeeps.

    Gasoline Soluble Paint used for Hood Registration Numbers, and other vehicle markings

    Dear Half-Mast,
    We’ve had a lot of trouble with gasoline-soluble paint, used to paint the large service command insignia on administrative vehicles and the national symbol on tactical vehicles. The nomenclature is Paint, gasoline-soluble, lusterless (paste), white; Fed. Stock No. 52-P-2732. This problem came to a head at our last inspection by the CG, who was able to wipe the things off by hand. We’ve also found that rain causes them to run and wash away or fade.
    How can we prevent this? 
    Lt. R. W. G.

    Dear Lieutenant,
    It’s now okay to use Enamel, synthetic, stenciling, lusterless, white (Fed. Stock No. 52-E-8400-275) for the star on all motor vehicles assigned to tactical units and AGF installations, and on administrative vehicles in theaters of operations as directed by the theater commander. Says so in AR 850-5 (15 Feb. 45).
    This white enamel should also be used for registration numbers. If yours are still blue, AR 850-5 says repaint ‘em by 15 Aug. 45.
    For any other national symbol, as directed by the Commanding General, ASF, for vehicles assigned to service command installations, gasoline-soluble paint will still be used. Likewise for unit identification markings, tactical markings, and weight-class markings - which ain’t necessarily permanent.
    from Army Motors, Vol. 6, No. 5, August 1945

    WWII Jeep Paint - There's more than one Olive Drab Paint color

    The original color paint used on WWII Jeeps was an Olive-Drab (OD) Green.  Lusterless Olive Drab paint had an average life span of 18 months. It was to be repainted after this time with another coat of OD.
    One thing to note is that WW II Navy jeeps were hardly ever, IF EVER, seen painted navy gray in WW II. An admiral painted one, and that is about it. The basic navy jeep of WW II was the same Olive Drab (OD) green as the army jeeps. More about this later.

    Many people have been told, wrongly, that there is an ‘Early WWII’, and a different, ‘Late WWII’ OD paint color. Most often the incorrect info is the early war vehicles should be a lighter OD (more olive in color) paint, while a darker OD (more green in color) should be on late war vehicles. This early and late war color difference holds true for canvas web gear that the GI’s carried, but does not hold true for paint jobs from the factory in WWII. The QMC (Quartermaster Corps) and the ORD (Ordnance Dept.) were in charge of setting up the specifications for the paint & color, and seeing to it that the manufacturers of the paint and the vehicles met those specs.

    FACTORY Paint
    This section is specifically about production paint on vehicles that were produced and delivered to the US Military in WWII.
    Willys and Ford both used the same color OD paint, #319, throughout the entire production from 1941 to 1945. Documentation in the National Archives, Willys Motors, GMC, White, Mack and Ford data and QMC/ORD publications proves that only one color was used in production. “Lusterless Olive Drab” was the color used on WWII production vehicles; Jeeps, Dodges, Chevy’s, GMCs, Halftracks, Armored Cars, Tanks, etc.

    Cross References for:
    Lusterless Olive Drab, 
    QMC spec 1-173, ES-474b or ORD ES-680
    Arco No. 236-60744
    DuPont No. 1070-019
    Murphy No. NU-5927
    Willey No. 1886

    In WWII, the QMC/ORD laid out the exact way to use the Lusterless Olive Drab paint and this included the proper thinner, primer and metal prep. Government specifications were very strict. QMC and ORD Inspectors would not accept paint that was not within the specifications that were set down by the agency.  This is fact and research into the QMC files will prove this out. The QMC had a very specific set of specifications on not just the paint composition, but on the whole painting procedure as well. ES-474, 474a, 474b and the later ES - 680 were the painting specifications, and they included the paint, primer, thinner, metal prep and application of the paint on production vehicles and on the use of Lusterless Olive Drab. In fact, the thickness of paint, (and not the number of coats), is also spelled out in the QMC specs. The thickness specifications were the same all throughout production.

    There are very rigid paint mixing and application standards in automotive production painting. A color pigment specialist was a very high paying job years ago. Many people don’t know how large quantities of paint are mixed. In factory work, paint is mixed 300 to 500 pounds (or more) of color at one time. Paints are mixed to a weight formula that is very exact. By using the formulas, you can actually be colorblind and still mix the pigments to the exact color every time. There are pages and pages of documents and formulas for paint in the Ford Motor Company Archives.  The paint formulas did go through some changes, but the color was still the same.

    Ford, Willys, et al, all used a very controlled environment in their coatings application.
    WWII Lusterless Olive Drab MUST be used with the proper rust-inhibiting primer. This was spelled out in the QMC specs. Think Red Oxide Primer.

    Metal prep specs. were changed during the war however. This was because some parts and vehicles, although well painted, had rust underneath the paint, due to water being absorbed through the porous paint and reaching the metal underneath. This rusting is usually due to improper metal prep before painting the item.

    Re: Spare Parts
    Replacement / Spare parts sometimes had different painting specifications depending on their intended use. While there is a variation in finishes in spare parts (replacement parts to be exact) most variations are not so different as to be called another color.

    Things to Consider
    I have NOT said, "All OD is Lusterless Olive Drab OD".
    I have said that ‘Lusterless Olive Drab’ paint and ‘Lusterless Olive Drab #319’ paint were the same color.
    I have also stated that only one color of paint was used in WWII in QMC/ORD tactical vehicle production.  I am talking about military vehicles. Paint specifications for items of a non-tactical nature are not the same as paint specifications for items that are tactical.

    There were other Olive Drab paint colors used.
    There was a full gloss OD that was used for non-tactical vehicles.

    The lanterns, ammo cans, etc may have been painted with Olive Drab #108, which is a ‘gloss’ paint. A lantern or ammo can is not a vehicle, and is not an item that has to be a camouflage color.

    WWII Paint vs. Today's Paint
    Contrary to what several paint vendors state, it is incorrect to talk about 'early' and 'late' WWII OD Green. There was no such thing as "early” or "late" WWII OD paint. All World War Two jeeps (and other WW2 vehicles) used by the US Army were all painted 'Lusterless Olive Drab' Synthetic Enamel. There was ONLY one WW2 'Lusterless Olive Drab' color used in production for jeeps and tactical vehicles. There was NO "light" or "dark", nor "early" or "late" Olive Drab color in WWII vehicle production. 'Lusterless Olive Drab' & "Lusterless Olive Drab, #319" were the exact same color. So if #319 in WWII was the same color as WWII Lusterless Olive Drab, can the same still be said today? NO! The #319 that is for sale today is NOT the correct color for the actual WWII Lusterless Olive Drab #319 green synthetic enamel paint. The color is too light, and not as dark green as the original Lusterless Olive Drab color. I have seen actual cans of original WWII dated Lusterless Olive Drab #319 green paint. None of the paint offered by any of the current paint vendors is a correct match for this paint. This is why, when you find NOS parts that are still in their original WWII OD paint, they do not match the brand new paint that you just bought and are using to paint your jeep. This is also why when you look at color WWII photographs and WWII film that show vehicles, they all look much darker and "greener" than the paint that is now available.

  • Lusterless paint is somewhere between a Flat paint and a Semi-Gloss paint.
  • Flat Olive Drab paint actually attracts and holds dirt, hand prints, stains, etc.
  • Factory WW II Jeep paint was an enamel, although lacquer was a very commonly found type of ‘army surplus’ OD paint after the war.
  • Field paint was “gasoline soluble", meaning, it came in a concentrated form, and was to be mixed with gasoline to thin and then be applied.
  • In post-war paint, the 1st digit denotes the gloss factor of the paint.   2 = Flat.   3 = Lusterless.   4 = Gloss
  • #23070 is a post 1945 to mid-1950's Flat Olive Drab. It is a camouflage Green
  • #33070 is a post 1945 Semi gloss Olive Drab, and it is not the same as WW II Lusterless Olive Drab.
  • #33070 is somewhat close to WWII, but it is too gray to be a match for WW II Lusterless Olive Drab.
  • #33070 - 1941-43 (Early WW11 Darker OD) - FALSE!
  • #319     - 1944-45 (Late  WW11 Lighter OD) - FALSE!
  • #24087 is Mid 1950's to Post Vietnam Flat Olive Drab
  • #34087 is Mid 1950's to Post Vietnam lusterless Olive Drab



    Olive Drab paint is still available on the web and from dealers; however, there is currently no commercially available paint that is 100% the correct color for WWII Lusterless Olive Drab.
    Some paint vendors will also tell you that Olive Drab #34087 is the same as WWII Lusterless Olive Drab, but this too is incorrect. #34087 is a post-war color paint and although close, it is not the same color as the WWII #319 paint. Even so, 99% of WWII Jeep restorers paint their jeeps a #34087 Lusterless Olive Drab (Semi Gloss), because; it is pretty close to WWII #319; and because it is more water & stain repellent than #24087 Flat OD.

    The Paint Colors used on standard WWII Army Jeeps
    NAVY Vehicles
    The first jeeps owned by the Navy and by the Marines were painted Lusterless Olive Drab. These were Ford GP's built on Navy and Marine contracts in 1941.

    No Navy jeeps were delivered painted Gray. All Navy GPW's were delivered in Lusterless Olive Drab. MB's were delivered in Lusterless Olive Drab and also in USMC "Forest Green". Gray painted Navy jeeps occasionally were repainted that color in the field by individuals in the Navy.

    There were a few vehicles (Jeeps are not included on the list) that were delivered in Gray. One example is the Ford GTB bomb trucks. One Navy contract was delivered painted "Ocean Gray". Also, Navy Ford station wagons were delivered painted Black.

    What color did the Navy paint vehicles in combat areas? Forest Green, Olive Drab or camouflage.

    USMC Vehicles
    Did the Marine Corps paint their vehicles Marine Corps Green or Olive Drab?

    USMC vehicles were painted Forest Green.
    All Ford GPW Jeeps diverted to the Marines were delivered in Lusterless Olive Drab.
    Willys MB Jeeps produced under contract were painted either Lusterless Olive Drab with a fog coat of Forest Green, or delivered in Forest Green.
    This was a Lusterless (meaning flat) green.

    USMC jeeps on Iwo Jima, and other places in WWII were painted a camouflage scheme. They were painted that way in the field and were not delivered painted that way.

    Canadian Jeeps
    In 1942 Canada acquired it's first jeeps from Willys. These Willys 'MB' Jeeps were made to specific Canadian contracts and varied from the US Army Jeeps and US Marine Corps Jeeps. They were unique vehicles. These Canadian MB's were not painted US olive drab, but a darker, browner 'Khaki No.3'.  Canada later purchased both the standard model Willys MB and the standard model Ford GPW. Both came in the standard American Olive Drab color, a color that Canada adopted for all Canadian military vehicles in mid 1944. For more on WWII Canadian Jeeps.

    What is a "Script Body Tub"?
    The early production jeeps (and other vehicles) carried the manufactures name in embossed letters on the back body panel. “WILLYS” in block letters and “FORD” in script letters. About ½ way through 1942, the U.S. Government decided to stop advertising vehicle brand names on ‘their’ military hardware. They told all the manufacturers to stop.  The script is found on the lower left side of the rear body panel just below where the jerry can / gas can rack is found on the mid 1942-1945 jeeps. Photo of an early Willys Script WWII Jeep rear panel (1942 MB). These Very Early jeeps are most commonly found in the USA today, especially on the west coast. They were the first jeeps issued and they were rushed to training centers immediately. Training centers such as Patton’s Desert Training Center in Ariz. and Calif.  When troops were deployed overseas, they left the old used ‘script’ jeeps behind and were issued fresh new jeeps to go to war with. This is why 1943, 1944, 1945 jeeps are more plentiful in Europe. Photo of early Ford Script WWII Jeep (1942 GPW). Recently I received an email from a gentleman in England questioning if the invention of the jerry can & mounting bracket was the real cause of the demise of the script name on the script jeeps. I appreciate the dialog and feedback from him & others. It allows me to fill in information on the web site and make improvements to it. This letter alludes to a magazine story about the surprised allies finding out a mystery device the Germans had which was discovered to be a 5 gallon gas can. The letter:

    Dear Sir,
    As owner of a late '42 GPW, may I make the following observation?
    Your piece on 'script Jeeps' misses one important factor. You say that the Government decided to stop advertising etc., during mid 1942. The prime reason for this was, in fact, the 'discovery' of the jerrycan in the north African desert, as the Allies pushed the Axis forces back for the first time. With such an efficient fuel container now being copied by the British and the US, it was natural to fill the otherwise empty space on the back of the jeep with spare fuel. At that point the manufacturers ceased stamping their names on the back because they could no longer be seen.
    Yours sincerely,
    Well the reason I didn't mention the discovery' and mounting of jerry cans above is because for the most part it's not true. The 'jerry can story' was often repeated, but is now pretty much dismissed as false folklore re: jerry cans. Gas cans were known about in 1939, and the German cans were manufactured in a completely different way than the US produced cans. German cans are a 2 pc clamshell style, while the US used a 3 pc assembly with a Top, a Bottom, and a Side section. I talk more about Gas cans on the The WWII MB/GPW Jeep Spare Parts Kit, Tools Kit, Standard Issue Equipment & Accessories, Special Issue Equipment & Accessories Web Page. The problem with attributing the demise of Script logos to gas cans is two-fold; #1) Logos could be moved, and #2) It fails to address other size vehicles.
    If there wasn't a ban on the Mfg.'s names, Ford & Willys could have just lowered the name by 2 inches, or moved the name to some other location such as the hood - remember the Willys MA was tagged on the hood. Jerry cans had nothing to do with stopping a relocation of the manufacturer's name, but a policy by the US Gov. against the display of logos would. The jerry can mounting position theory also fails to address any other vehicle other than the jeep. It was a US inventory wide policy against manufacturer advertising on all vehicles, not just jeeps. Jerry can mounting locations would not be a factor on Dodges, Chevrolets, GMC's, Whites, Studebakers, Autocars, Caddy's, Packers, and others who also had to restrict the display of their names.

    Were early 1942 Ford GPW’s on Willys Frames?
    So you have a Script Ford body tub sitting on a Willys frame.
    Well in early Ford production, they used the same outside vendor to buy frames that Willys did. So everyone refers to them as Willys Frames. The US Military wanted the jeeps as fast as possible, and stopping to wait for Ford to tool up to produce their own design of frames would have put them too far behind in the production quota. The solution was to order some Willys type frames and use them until the Ford version was being produced in house. There were 9-10,000 of the first GPW's that were put on Willys type frames. The serial #'s are going to be out of order, and there will be gaps as well. It is not unheard of to have a GPW in the 15,000 range and still be on one of the first Willys style frames.
    This is because Ford used a different accounting method than Willys. At Ford the MAIN unit being counted was the engine serial number.  As engines were made they were stamped with a sequential serial # and tagged with additional wire tie tags with the same # on them.  As the engines were made, they were moved to the Engine Storage Room to await delivery to the assembly line.  The first engines made (and therefore lower in serial#) would be put in the room first - in the back, with later, higher numbered engines going in front of them.  The engines were removed and sent to the assembly line as they were stacked and arranged in the Engine Storage Room, not in numerical order.  This means that the 1st 9,000 engines did not necessarily go on the 1st 9,000 frames.  Some of the later ford frames got early engines, and vice versa.
    The extra wire ties tags were keeping track of the jeep (inventory) at each stage of production for accounting purposes. For example, for the guy who stamped the serial# on the chassis / frame, and for the guy who stamped the # in the data plate (completed body), and last, for the guard to tear off as it went out the back door as a completed unit.

    What are Black Out Lights?
         The US Army devised a strategy to use the tail lights and marker lights on vehicles to not only evade detection from the enemy, but also to help with the problem of conducting vehicle movement at night under black out conditions.  These specially designed military lights are called Black Out Lights.  The original type used were called ‘Blue Louver” blackout lights.  They were sometimes also referred to as “Cat Eye / Cat’s Eye” Black Out Lamps, because the taillight had a black vertical stripe. These consisted of a glass lens at the front, followed by a black metal disc, and then a colored plastic inner lens. All the pieces were held together by a thick black rubber gasket mounted inside a pot metal bucket and metal bezel (cover).  The metal disc would be perforated with many parallel cuts.  The metal strips created by the slices were then bent forward to allow a tiny amount of light to pass through. (There were actually 2 metal discs, both with louvers, placed back-to-back and riveted or spot-welded together). The front marker lights had a blue gray colored lens, while the rear B/O <Black-out> Stop Light had 2 lenses, one of red, the other a blue gray.  Individual parts could be replaced. These lights were used on all types of vehicles including the prototype jeeps - The Ford GP, and the Bantam BRC-40.  The Blue Louver Lights did not see use on the standard production WWII Willys MB and Ford GPW jeeps. Photograph of a Pre-war to Early WWII Blue Louver Black Out Marker Light.
        The MB/GPW’s used the standardized B/O light of WW2.  These lights consisted of a bucket, and metal bezel that contained a sealed unit. The individual lenses, screen, colored lens and bulb were a sealed unit and had to be replaced as a unit if one part was damaged.  This made the unit much more water-resistant than the previous style.  The way the black out effect was achieved was also changed for these standard B/O lights. The thick rubber gasket, the metal louvers, and the black stripes were gone.  Instead the sealed unit contained a clear plastic lens on the outside. Then set back in from the front approx. ½ inch was a black plastic screen, which had upside down pyramids cut out. Following the black screen was a colored plastic lens in off-white, or red. Last, and set back into and soldered to the metal housing was the small incandescent light bulb of low output.
    The key features were:
      1) The upside down triangles,
      2) The fact that the triangles were set back from the front face of the light's lens,
      3) The spacing of the triangles in relation to each other.
        The set back and the fact the triangle was upside down was important because it allowed any one at foot level the see the lights clearly. However, anyone flying over and trying to spot the vehicles or get their bearing from automobile lights on the road were unable to see them because the angle would not allow it. The higher the angle, the less of the triangle was visible because of the overhang. Low output bulbs limited the distance the lights could be seen. The next key was the spacing of the triangles.  The front marker light had 2 triangles. The rear stoplight had 2 pairs of triangles.
    Configured like this:  Y Y       Y Y
    Photograph of Standard WWII Black Out Tail Lights - Right Hand.
    Photograph of Standard WWII Black Out Tail Lights - Left Hand.
    They were cut into the black plastic in pairs. The triangles of a pair would be separated by about 3/8”, and the pairs were separated from each other by about 1-½ inches.  This spacing was important.  They had done the geometry to determine the correct separation to make these triangles of light helpful when driving in a convoy at night.  As the driver of a vehicle located in the middle of the convoy driving at night under black out conditions, you had to rely on the B/O lights on the vehicle in front of you and behind you to maintain your speed and distance from the other vehicles in the convoy.  If you could see all 4 red triangles of the stoplight in front of you, you were following too closely. If all 4 red triangles merged into 1 red light, you were too far back. What you wanted to see was that each of the PAIRS of red lights merged.
    From this (too close - under 60 feet): 
    Y  Y Y  Y 
      Y  Y Y  Y
    8 points of light is too many
    To this (correct distance - 60 - 180 ft): 
               V   V

    V   V 
    4 points of light is correct
    To this (too far back - over 180 feet): 


    2 points of light is too few
    Left Blackout Tail Light Right Blackout Tail Light
    This means you would see 2 red lights per taillight. This allowed you enough stopping distance, and kept you from getting left behind as well.  As the driver, you were to also watch your rear view mirror and keep an eye on the guy behind you.  His front marker lights to be exact. Those 2 triangles should merge into 1 if he was following you at the correct distance. If you could make out individual triangles, then he was following too closely and you should tap your brake lights to get his attention. If the lights faded and couldn’t be seen, then you might be driving to fast, or there could be a problem that would require halting the column.
        Several months after standardizing the B/O lights, it was decided that a B/O Driving Light was needed.  This was a larger lamp assembly that was mounted to the left front fender of the jeep and other vehicles.  This light had a higher candlepower bulb inside. It was larger and used a lens with angles in it to direct the light in a horizontal pattern and minimize the light escaping vertically.  The lamp also had a metal hood similar to a baseball cap’s bill built into it to make it invisible from the sky.  The name B/O Driving Light confused many people.  The main purpose was not to help the driver see the terrain; rather it was for the people driving ahead of you. Your B/O Drive Light was right in line with the outside rear view mirror of the guy in front of you. As a driver, if you saw a rapidly approaching Black Out Drive Light in your rear view mirror, you could tap your brake lights as a warning or take evasive action as necessary. It would also allow pedestrians a better chance of seeing you coming and get out of your way. It’s value as a way of seeing where you were going is next to nil.  B/O Driving lights became standard issue starting in mid 1942.  Retrofit kits were issued to modify vehicles already in the field. See next question for photos.
    1/4ton Bantam and Willys trailers (MBT / T-3) used the same black out lights.  However, switching between normal and blackout lights on the jeep pulling the trailer did not affect the status of the lights that were running on the trailer.  The trailer had its own light switch mounted to the front passenger side box frame. Here is a photo showing the small WWII MBT Jeep Trailer B/O Light Switch mounted in the front of the lower passenger side. There was a small disc (door) that swiveled out of the way to reveal a small set screw that can be turned using the butt end of the Jeep H-700 Key to switch between running lights and B/O lites.

    What is that strange Bracket on the Driver's Side Fender for?
    Black Out Driving Lights were mounted to a guard bracket that had a strong iron loop over it to protect the B/O Light.  There are 2 styles, the early squared base, and the normal teardrop shaped mounting brackets. There are even slight manufacturing differences between Ford and Willys brackets.  Willys used a large blob spot weld to attach the loop to the lower base, while Ford used a smaller and deeper patterned spot weld. The pattern looks like 5 dots as found on dice. Teardrop style guards will be found with Ford “F” marks stamped into the loop (usually at the 11 o’clock position, although some are known to exist that are marked on the base).
    Photo showing front view of WWII Jeep with B/O Driving Light.
    Photograph of WWII jeep with early WW2 'Squared' Black Out Driving Light Guard.
    Photograph of WWII jeep with standard WW2 'Teardrop' shaped Black Out Driving Light Guard.
    Here is a picture showing a top view of the B/O Drive Lite with the baseball cap bill extending into the loop of the B/O Lite Guard.

    What are the Thumbscrews, Thumbwheels and other hardware on the Windshield for?
    On the Outer Windshield Arms where the windshield attaches to the cowl of the jeep there are thumbscrews. The thumbscrews turn to loosen the tension and allow the windshield to tilt forward and lay flat against the hood where clamps hold them down against the hood blocks on the hood. The Thumbscrews have little metal wire Safety Chain Loops and Chains around them to keep them from falling off and getting lost. One loop goes around the thumbscrew, while the other goes through a small hole on the Windshield Cowl Bracket which is permanently bolted to the jeep. Should the thumbscrew come loose and fall off, it would dangle on the end of the chain and not get lost in the weeds.
    Picture of WW2 (G503) Jeep Safety Chains and Ford GPW style Loops.
    Folding the windshield down allows the lowest profile for the jeep when sneaking around or trying to hide a jeep. It is also useful for saving space when shipping the jeeps.  Having the windshield folded flat also maximizes the field of fire for a rifleman sitting in the jeep. Driving with the windshield down offers the best visibility for spotting the enemy as well as negotiating tricky terrain and situations while driving.
    Picture of WW2 (G503) Jeep with the windshield folded down.
    The Windshield is held in the upright position by a Clamp mounted on the windshield frame with the Catch mounted to the dashboard. The early jeeps came with clamps made of brass. They were shortly changed to a stamped steel construction.
    Photo of Early Brass Windshield Clamp.
    Picture of Late Stamped Steel Windshield Clamp.
    Photograph with a more side view showing Late Windshield Clamp and Dash Catch.
    There are situations when you would want the top up for shade or rain protection, but still need the extra visibility and freedom of movement and field of fire that an open windscreen affords.  The WW2 jeep was designed so that the main windshield frame could be up in the raised position, supporting the canvas top, and the Inner Windshield Frame could be opened and tilted forward.  This allowed for better visibility, field of fire, and voice communications to the front of the vehicle.  The inner windshield could be opened just a little to allow fresh air in, or all the way up to allow the use of rifles aimed forward. the Inner Windshield is attached to the Outer windshield frame at the very top by a very long piano hinge.  At each end of the windshield assembly are small Arms and Thumb wheels. Loosening the Thumbwheels allows the hinge of the Inner Windshield to tilt forward and the Arms slide along a stud.  At any point the Thumb wheel can be tightened up, locking the Inner Windshield in it place.
    Photo showing details of Inner Windshield Arm, Thumb Wheel.
    Picture of WW2 (G503) Jeep with Outer Windshield Frame raised, Inner Windshield open. (see Navy Jeep ~ notice arms with slot frame stud slides in).
    Picture of World War Two "Follow Me" jeep with the inner windshield open.

    What is the long bracket on the inside of the windshield for?
    The Universal Rifle Rack is a long metal bracket mounted to the inside of the lower windscreen on the windshield of a WW2 Military Jeep. The same rifle racks were also used on many, many other US army vehicles as well. The Univ. Rifle Rack was designed to hold several different rifles. It would hold the M-1 Garand, M1 Carbine, BAR / Browning Automatic Rifle, Thompson Sub Machine Gun, Grease Gun, and the Springfield and Enfield rifles.  There is a little loop that swivels down to allow the short barreled grease gun to be mounted.  The other rifles are held in place by a cam-locking arm with a rubber bumper.  The gun mounts upside down with the barrel pointing out the passenger side. The locking arm holds the barrel up. When the arm is moved out of the way, a spring pushed the gun downwards into the waiting hands of the GI. Photograph of a 45cal Thompson 'Tommy gun" machine gun with the 50 round drum mounted in a Universal Rifle Rack. Notice the rifle rack is mounted upside down in this photo. If it was mounted correctly, the 50 round drum would not fit because it would hit the jeep's dash. Photograph of Universal Rifle Rack mounted correctly with rifle installed. Notice cam arm holding gun barrel fore-grip up is rubber padded.

    The Universal Rifle Racks were also issued with zippered canvas covers to jeeps and other vehicles used farther back from the front lines. The canvas cover served to protect the gun from dust & rain. Photograph of WWII Ford GPW Jeep with empty Rifle Rack mounted to inside of windshield frame. The first mention of the Universal Rifle rack appears in October 1942 in Army Motors Vol. 3, pg. 205. Jeeps produced prior (and most likely for a time after) would not have the Universal Rifle Rack. The early jeeps were able to use the leather scabbards that were available for the different weapons. Field Modification kits were issued to add a Universal Rifle Rack to a jeep that originally came without one from the factory. Univ. Rifle Racks evolved over time. The earliest Rifle Racks (version 1) did not have the swivel loop for the Grease Gun, nor did they have the metal reinforcement straps stapled to the bracket to hold the canvas cover on. The metal swivel loop for the grease gun barrel (version 2) appears to have been added rather quickly as very few of the Univ. Rifle Racks come without it. The next change was adding the zippered canvas cover (version 3) which was held in place by two long strips of metal that were placed on top of the canvas along the backbone of the Univ. Rifle Rack and stapled through all 3 layers. There was also a Field Mod kit for the canvas cover.  You can tell a field mod canvas cover from a factory canvas cover by whether the metal strips are held in place by staples (factory) or by 2 small sheet metal screws (field modification) on each strip. I have examples of all types in my collection.
    My best estimate re: time frames.
    prior to late 1942 - - Leather scabbards only
    4th Quarter 1942 - Version 1 - no swivel, no canvas cover
    2nd Quarter 1943 - Version 2 - swivel, no canvas cover
    4th Quarter 1944 - Version 3 - swivel, canvas cover
    Here is a photo of a late style WWII Jeep Windshield Frame with the welded on brackets that the Universal Rifle Rack bolted to.
    Early jeeps were not issued with Rifle Racks, so their windshield inner sheet metal pan did not have the mounting brackets welded to them. They used Leather Rifle Scabbards instead. The Universal Rifle Rack was designed to replace the many types of leather Rifle Scabbards issued. Leather Scabbards were made in many different models. Each type of firearm required it's own special leather scabbard.  They were not a one-scabbard-fits-all arrangement. Individual leather scabbards were made for the following fire arms;

    1. M1 Carbine .30 cal Rifle
    2. M1 Garand .30 cal Rifle
    3. Thompson .45 cal Submachine Gun
    4. Springfield .30cal Rifle
    The scabbards were attached to the military vehicles by leather straps. They were hung from the vehicle as best they could be.
    Photograph of Early Leather Rifle Scabbard mounted on WWII Jeep (hanging on rear view mirror arm, windshield frame, and behind shovel).
    Photograph of 2 WWII G503 Military Jeeps, both with Leather Rifle Scabbards.

    Why is the gas tank located under the driver's seat?
    When Carl Probst and the people from the different branches of the armed forces were brainstorming over what would become the jeep, the following observation was brought up. The jeep was to operate with a normal crew of 3 people, oftentimes more. That to have the driver be shot/killed would usually result in death or injury to all occupants by loss of control of the vehicle. So any bullet with a trajectory intersecting the driver meant the crew was most likely a write off. A bullet with any other trajectory would only take out a non-essential occupant (non-essential to the operation of the vehicle anyway). The jeep must have a gas tank, which is by nature prone to fire & explosion when fired upon, especially with incendiary, or tracer rounds. An explosion of the fuel tank would injure/kill all occupants of a jeep. To minimize the number of "death shot" trajectories available to the enemy, the tank was placed under the driver. To put it anywhere else was to double the number of places that the enemy could deliver a death shot to the entire crew. By putting the high risk areas together, they minimized the space and therefore increased the chances of crew & vehicle survivability. The first jeeps, the MA, BRC, and GP had only 10-gallon tanks sitting on top of the floorboard, with no spare gas can on the rear body panel. The first MB's & GPW's came with a 15-gallon tank, which now included a 5-gallon sump below the floorboards, but still no jerry can or rack . After 6 months of MB GPW production the standard 5 gallon jerry can and rack were added to the rear panel of the jeep presenting a nice target to shoot at. If you watch the history channel enough, you'll see some fine movies of people driving jeeps with the rear end of the jeep on fire i.e.: the jerry can took a round. Civilians face different circumstances when talking about survivability. They are much more likely to get in a collision, than shot at. Ruptured and flaming gas tanks inside passenger compartments was frowned upon by Hi-way Traffic safety people, which led to rules being put in place to move gas tanks outside the interior cabin space of vehicles to better protect the occupants.

    Re: Anti-Decapitation Device
    It was a nasty fact of war that sometimes the enemy forces would string a thin wire across a roadway that Allied Jeeps traveled on. This steel tension wire provided a static way to lop off the heads of drivers (passengers) who couldn't see it (night time, dust, fatigue, etc.), and even if they could see it, stopping in time was seldom accomplished. The GI's answer to this booby trap threat was the Anti-Decapitation Device, which was a field made angle iron assembly bolted or welded to the front bumper. There were usually 2 support braces that angled back to either side of the frame rails. At the top it was angled forward to catch & hold the wire and usually a notch was cut and sharpened as well to aid in catching wires and cutting them. Here is a picture of a Anti-Decapitation Device mounted on a WW2 Ford GPW Jeep made in 1942.

    Were the Jeeps sent to Russia during WW2 as part of Lend Lease specially adapted for Russian weather, primitive roads etc.?
    No, in fact they were our cast-offs.  We originally sent our Bantam BRC-40, Willys MA, and Ford GP 1st model prototype Jeeps to Russia (and other Lend Lease countries including the British) because they did not meet the new standards set by the Willys 2nd model, the Willys MB.  The newer WWII Jeeps were not for sale in great quantities, as we didn’t have many to spare in the early stages of World War Two. As the war progressed and we had enough jeeps for our uses, we sent over MB's and GPA's to our Lend Lease Partners. At the same time, Russia had reverse engineered a jeep of their own, The GAZ-67, 4x4, Command Car, copying most of it’s parts and design layout from the US versions. It's front end styling is distinctly Russian, but it still shows the influence of the prototype BRC and MA headlight style. (see below for a link to my WWII GAZ Jeep page).

    Re: Winterization Kits
    Winter canvas grill covers, and hood blankets were produced late in the war in limited quantities. Small kerosene, gas stove heaters were also produced in very limited quantity. Full canvas Top enclosure assemblies were produced in much larger quantity than the other Winterizing kits, and even they were in short supply. Here is a photograph of a full canvas winter enclosure on a 1941 Willys Slatgrill jeep. Hard tops were made in the field from whatever materials were at hand. The war produced all sorts of interesting scrap materials to build jeep tops from, including tops made of wood, steel, aircraft aluminum, and even clear plastic airplane bubble canopies. Here is a photograph of a field made WWII Jeep Hard Top. All hard tops were for the most part one-of-a-kind. There was probably an instance or two of some field unit constructing a dozen similar units, but I don’t have any writen records, instructions, or diagrams, just a few photos showing a few hard tops of similar design & construction.

    Re: Canvas Tops and Doors
    From the very first design on paper of what was to become known as a jeep, they have always had a canvas top.  The tops for the prototype Jeeps, The Bantam BRC 40, Willys MA, and Ford GP (from 1940 to 1941) were supported by only one upright bow at the rear.  The flapping of the top caused by the wind when driving was beating on the driver’s heads. It proved to be unbearable, so they fixed that problem on the standard production Ford GPW and Willys MB jeeps (late 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945).  The standard production MB/GPW jeeps came with 2 top bows. The 2nd support bow was added to the main rear bow on a pivot a few inches up from the bottom of the main rear top bow tube. The pivot allowed the bow to pivot forward to support the top right behind the driver seat, or to fold flat for storage when the top was not in use. And after MB # 3000 they raised the height of the windshield as well. Photograph of WWII jeep with canvas top up. Canvas top were originally stenciled with information on them, but they are seldom seen today since most original canvas tops have ripped, torn, faded, shrunk over the years and been thrown away. Even the stenciling itself can fade away or be hidden by dirt and stains. Here is a picture of a typical stencil markings on a canvas jeep top. Army Jeeps also came with canvas 1/2 doors. They attached with 7 complex snaps to the side of the body. These snaps are not the kind of snaps seen today. Both the snaps and the ½ doors were next to useless, and that is why you almost never see them in pictures. Photograph of WWII Jeep 1/2 Doors in use on 1942 Ford GPW.

    Re: Windshield Covers
    The Windshield Cover is another item that is seldom seen today. The army and marines infrequently used them in combat as well, although you can find several late war photos from the ETO showing them in use.  Many times they were utilized as an extra storage place for personal belongings.  The windshield cover consisted of 2 long pieces of OD canvas sewn together at the top and both sides. The bottom was left open to allow the windshield to slide into it, and then the bottom was closed with snaps. At the top, there were cutouts to allow the loops screwed to the top of the windshield to come through so the windshield could to be folded down and secured with the hood clamps. Occasionally a star was stenciled to the windshield cover since it covered the star painted on the hood when folded down.  The purpose of the windshield was to protect the glass from falling debris, and to stop the glass from acting like a mirror and reflecting sun/moon/star light to enemy observers thereby giving away your position. Here is a photograph of a WW2 jeep with the windshield cover and 1/2 doors in place.

    WWII Willys Canadian Scout Car Jeep - The "W-LU 440-M-PERS-1"
    In 1942 Canada acquired it's first jeeps from Willys. 5,000 custom made World War Two Willys Scout Car (MB Jeeps) made & modified in the US to Canadian specs.  The Canadian model name for this jeep is W-LU 440-M-PERS-1 (Willys Light Utility Military 4 wheels, 4 wheel drive, 80 inch wheelbase, Personnel, 1st Model).
    These Willys 'MB' Jeeps were made to specific Canadian contracts and varied from the US Army Jeeps and US Marine Corps Jeeps. They were unique vehicles. These Canadian MB's were not painted US olive drab, but a darker, browner 'Khaki No.3'.  Canada later purchased both the standard model Willys MB and the standard model Ford GPW. Both came in the standard American Olive Drab color, a color that Canada adopted for all Canadian military vehicles in mid 1944.

    WWII Russian GAZ Jeeps
        Russia copies and modifies the early prototype American Jeep designs and creates its own version.   (Follow the link above to it's own webpage)

    Germany's 'Jeep-like' war vehicles - The Kuebelwagen and the Schwimmwagen
        Germany builds it's own amphibious 'GPA-like' and it's own general purpose 'Jeep-like' vehicles for World War Two.   (Follow the link above to it's own webpage)

    WW2 Wartime Civilian or AGRI-Jeeps
        A very few test Civilian / Agrijeep Jeeps were made during WW2 - Experimental CJ-2 Photo (not a CJ-2a)

    The Jeepney of the Philippines
        After World War Two, the US Military had many extra jeeps for sale. Many of the Army Surplus WWII Jeeps were sold and then heavily modified in the Philippines. Most commonly used as Taxi Cabs.   (Follow the link above to it's own webpage)

        Here is a list of movies and TV shows that Military Jeeps can be seen in. There are also links to several web sites dedicated to Hollywood productions, in some the jeep was a star, in others it only had a supporting role. All are fun to browse through.

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